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研究生:李培瑄
研究生(外文):Pei-Hsuan Li
論文名稱:行動導航之示意地圖應用
論文名稱(外文):Topological Map in Mobile Navigation
指導教授:趙坤茂
口試委員:王弘倫朱安強
口試日期:2014-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:手機導航找路示意地圖人機互動手機介面適地性服務
外文關鍵詞:Mobilenavigationwayfindingtopological maphuman-computer interactionmobile interfacelocation-based services
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隨著科技的創新與進步,人類得以在不同地點之間更頻繁的移動,進而提高了我們對行動導航系統的需求。在這類型的系統中,具更高互動性的數位地圖常被作為傳統紙製地圖的替代品。我在本論文中提出:我認為現有的行動地圖介面中,對於指引行人從A點移動到B點的需求,尚未出現最合適的解決方案。其中主要的困難在於行動用戶擁有多變的使用情境,且行動裝置有許多不同的限制。本論文的目標是為行人導航設計和實作出一個更實用的行動介面,並評估其可用性。在論文中,我將使用 geolocation apps 一詞稱呼使用地圖介面的行動應用。為了開發出具有高可用性的 geolocation app,我依照使用者導向設計(UCD)的方法向使用者學習,進而為使用者設計。首先,為了解此類型系統面臨的問題與現行的解決方案,我對現有的 geolocation apps 進行全面性的研究。我在需求分析階段透過半結構化面談(semi-structured interview)和隨身觀察(user shadowing)進一步了解使用者需求並定義設計目標。參與半結構面談與隨身觀察的受測者代表到陌生城市中旅行的使用族群。從這些實驗結果中,我對使用者迷失方向的原因與他們需要的地理空間資訊有了更深入的了解。我在 iOS 上實作了行動介面的原型 TopoNav,此軟體可直接在Apple的iPhone上運行。為了評估 TopoNav 的可用性,我對一群受測者進行現場觀察,他們代表到陌生城市旅行的使用族群。我同時也對 Google Maps 進行相同的測試,藉此比較觀察結果。為了評估TopoNav的有效性和效率,受測者被要求在測試過程中執行4個導航和定位任務。我主要採用了聲音錄製和放聲思考(thinking aloud)這兩種研究方法。結果表示,在給定的使用情境內,TopoNav具有比Google Maps更好的可用性。除此之外,我從受測者那獲得了許多寶貴的意見反饋,將在未來作為改進 TopoNav 之用。

As the technology innovates and expands, the mobility of human beings increases and the uses of a mobile navigation system are growing in its popularity. Cartographic interfaces are often used in these systems as an alternative to traditional paper maps with higher interactivity. In this thesis, I argue that existing mobile cartographic interface solutions are not best suited to guide a pedestrian from A to B. The main reasons for it are the dynamic context of use for mobile users and limitations of the mobile devices. The aim of this thesis is to design, implement, and evaluate a more usable mobile interface for pedestrian navigation. The term geolocation apps will be used for the mobile applications that use cartographic interfaces in this thesis. In order to develop a geolocation app with high usability, I followed the User-Centered Design (UCD) approach to learn from the user and design for the user. I first performed a thorough overview of existing geolocation apps to understand the problems and currently available solutions. To further understand the user requirements and define the design goals, semi-structured interviews and user shadowing observations were conducted during the requirement analysis phase of this research. The selected participants in these two experiments represent travelers using geolocation apps to an unfamiliar city. From the results of these experiments, I gained a deeper understanding of the geospatial information required by users and causes of their disorientation. Based on the findings from requirement analysis, a prototype interface, TopoNav, was then implemented on iOS and it runs on a standard Apple iPhone. In order to evaluate the usability of TopoNav, a field-based observation was conducted with representative participants of travelers to an unfamiliar city. Google Maps were also tested for comparison purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of TopoNav, the participants were asked to perform four navigation and orientation tasks during the test. Audio record and thinking aloud were the main research methods used. The results show that TopoNav has better usability than Google Maps in the given context of use. In addition to this, valuable feedbacks from the participants were collected to make further improvement of TopoNav in future.

Acknowledgements II
摘要 IV
Abstract VI
TABLE OF COTENTS VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
LIST OF TABLES XI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1. Background of Mobile Navigation 1
1.2. Topological Map 7
1.3. Thesis Organization 10
Chapter 2 Related Works 11
2.1. Turn-by-Turn Navigation System 11
2.2. Image-Based Navigation 12
Chapter 3 Requirement Analysis 15
3.1. Fundamentals of User-Centered Design 16
3.2. UCD Methodologies Applied in This Research 22
3.3. User Profiling 23
3.4. Interview 26
3.4.1. Participants 28
3.4.2. Findings 30
3.5. User Shadowing 32
3.5.1. Participants 34
3.5.2. Test Area 36
3.5.3. Findings 38
3.6. Results of the Requirement Analysis 38
Chapter 4 Implementation and Evaluation of TopoNav 40
4.1. Introduction 40
4.2. Implementation 43
4.3. Evaluation 48
4.3.1. Testing Methodology 49
4.3.2. Test Tasks and Scenarios 50
4.3.3. Participants 55
4.3.4. Test Area 57
4.3.5. Test Session Structure 58
4.3.6. Research Methods 59
4.3.7. Test Execution 60
4.3.8. Analysis of the Results 61
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion 79
5.1. Lesson Learned 79
5.2. Conclusion and Future Works 81
Bibliography 83


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