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研究生:沈建佑
研究生(外文):Chien-Yu Shen
論文名稱:環境中重金屬的環境風險評估及生物吸附:以硒、砷、鎘為例
論文名稱(外文):Environmental Risk Assessment and Biosorption of Heavy Metals: Selenium, Arsenic and Cadmium
指導教授:廖秀娟廖秀娟引用關係
口試委員:陳佩貞邱嘉斌陳韋妤
口試日期:2014-07-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生物環境系統工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:秀麗隱桿線蟲重金屬環境風險評估苦茶粕生物吸附
外文關鍵詞:Caenorhabditis elegansenvironmental risk assessmentheavy metalseleniumtea seed pomacebiosorption
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重金屬為已知會對生物體造成毒性的物質,其易於生物體中累積且不易排除生物體外。然而近代工業發展快速,重金屬汙染已經是十分重要的環保議題。本研究論文針對重金屬汙染物進行生物神經毒性環境風險評估與利用生物廢棄物移除重金屬進行探討。神經毒性風險評估方面,本研究使用秀麗隱桿線蟲(Caenorhabditis elegans; C. elegans) 作為模式生物進行環境硒風險評估;移除重金屬部分,則以苦茶粕作為生物材質吸附移除水中的重金屬 (砷、鎘)。環境風險評估利用C. elegans運動行為模式評估硒所造成之神經毒性,並以數學模式計算其Threshold,進而對環境中之案例進行評估。而生物吸附實驗,則以苦茶粕填充玻璃管柱,通過不同之重金屬溶液後,將不同時間之出流濃度以數學模式計算結果,並分析其吸附能力。結果顯示,高濃度的硒將會造成C. elegans的運動行為減慢,但是環境中的硒卻不會對C. elegans族群造成太大的風險。生物吸附的結果顯示,苦茶粕相對其他生物吸附材質對鎘具有卓越的吸附能力,相對於鎘而言,砷的吸附能力則較差許多。本研究認為苦茶粕對於二價金屬的吸附能力,是十分有潛力的吸附材質。

誌謝……………………………………………………………I
中文摘要………………………………………………………II
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………IV
目錄……………………………………………………………V
表次…………………………………………………………IX
圖次……………………………………………………………X
壹、 研究動機……………………………………………………………… 1
貳、 文獻回顧與研究目的……………………………………………2
2.1 重金屬對環境的危害………………………………………………………2
2.1.1硒 (Selenium) 於環境中的來源及其危害……………………………2
2.1.2砷 (Arsenic) 於環境中的來源及其危害……………………………3
2.1.3 鎘 (Cadmium) 於環境中的來源及其危害…………………………3
2.2 環境風險評估之簡介……………………………………………………4
2.3 以秀麗隱桿線蟲 (C. elegans) 作為模式生物探討毒性效應……………5
2.4 以生物吸附法處理重金屬廢水……………………………………………6
2.5 苦茶粕作為生物吸附劑之潛能……………………………………………8
2.6 研究目標……………………………………………………………………8
參、 材料與方法………………………………………………………10
3.1 硒對C. elegans造成之運動行為影響及其環境風險評估……………10
3.1.1 實驗藥品…………………………………………………………12
3.1.2 C. elegans與生長條件………………………………………12
3.1.3 C. elegans運動行為分析實驗……………………………………12
3.1.4 毒性影響分析………………………………………………………..13
3.1.5 風險Threshold預估…………………………………………………14
3.1.6 風險定量……………………………………………………………15
3.1.7 不確定性分析與數據處理…………………………………………15
3.2 利用苦茶粕之填充床管柱移除水中重金屬(砷、鎘)…………………16
3.2.1 實驗藥品與吸附劑材料……………………………………………19
3.2.2 管柱設計……………………………………………………………19
3.2.3 實驗過程與濃度測定……………………………………………19
3.2.4 貫穿曲線參數分析………………………………………………19
3.2.5 Adams-Bohart動態吸附模式………………………………………20
3.2.6 Thomas動態吸附模式………………………………………………21
3.2.7 Yoon-Nelson動態吸附模式………………………………………21
肆、 結果……………………………………………………………………23
4.1 硒對C. elegans行為模式之影響…………………………………………23
4.1.1 硒造成C. elegans之body bending frequency下降…………………23
4.1.2 硒造成C. elegans之head thrashing frequency下降………………23
4.1.3 硒造成C. elegans之reversal frequency下降………………………23
4.1.4 濃度-影響關係評估…………………………………………………27
4.1.5 Threshold之預測結果………………………………………………32
4.1.6 PEC之預估………………………………………………………37
4.1.7 風險定量……………………………………………………………37
4.2 利用苦茶粕做為生物吸附劑移除水中重金屬……………………………41
4.2.1 不同重金屬對苦茶粕吸附能力的影響……………………………41
4.2.2 動態吸附模式擬合苦茶粕對As(III)與Cd(II)之吸附結果………45
伍、 討論……………………………………………………………………52
5.1 硒對C. elegans行為模式之影響及神經毒性風險評估…………………52
5.1.1 C. elegans的行為模式做為硒對生物之非致死神經毒性的評估指標……………………………………………………………………52
5.1.2 C. elegans對硒毒性敏感度和其他生物之比較……………………52
5.1.3 環境風險Threshold與風險商數之比較……………………………53
5.2 利用苦茶粕做為生物吸附劑移除水中重金屬……………………………53
5.2.1 苦茶粕具有良好潛力以做為重金屬鎘之吸附劑…………………53
5.2.2 苦茶粕對As(III)與Cd(II)吸附狀況之差別………………………54
5.2.3 不同生物吸附劑與苦茶粕對As(III)與Cd(II)之比較……………54
陸、 結論與建議…………………………………………………………57
柒、 參考文獻………………………………………………………………58


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