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研究生:李銘倫
研究生(外文):Ming-Lun Lee
論文名稱:運用不同排列之二維光子晶體來探討空氣佔有率與氮化銦鎵類發光二極體光萃取增益之關係
論文名稱(外文):Utilizing Two Dimensional Photonic Crystals in Different Arrangement to Investigate the Correlation between the Air Duty Cycle and the Light Extraction Enhancement of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes
指導教授:管傑雄管傑雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chieh-Hsiung Kuan
口試委員:蘇炎坤陳啟東孫允武孫建文黃建璋林瑞明吳育任蔡永傑
口試日期:2014-07-03
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電子工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:空氣佔有率電子束微影系統發光二極體光萃取增益光子晶體
外文關鍵詞:Air duty cycleE-beam lithographyLight-emitting diodesLight extraction enhancementPhotonics crystal
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本篇論文運用不同排列之二維光子晶體來探討空氣佔有率與氮化銦鎵類發光二極體光萃取增益之關係。該等二維週期性奈米光子晶體係採用電子束微影方式搭配乾式蝕刻形成。
運用表面週期性光子晶體來提升氮化銦鎵類發光二極體之亮度已經廣泛地被探討,肇因於其可大幅地提升氮化銦鎵類發光二極體之光萃取增益。然而,於設計光子晶體時須仔細地考慮三項要素,分別為週期、深度以及空氣佔有率。但截至目前為止,於文獻上鮮少對於光子晶體之空氣佔有率與氮化銦鎵類發光二極體光萃取增益進行深入探討。有鑑於此,不同排列以及形狀的二維光子晶體之空氣佔有率與氮化銦鎵類發光二極體光萃取增益之關係,將於本篇論文中進行深入探討。
本篇論文之內文包含二維光子晶體之設計製作與量測分析。於光學量測方面,光致激發螢光頻譜系統可用於決定相對發光強度;積分球量測系統可用於決定相對光譜輻射通量,並同時可驗證光致激發螢光頻譜量測數據之趨勢。除此之外,將表面具有二維光子晶體之發光二極體磊晶片經由業界之標準製程,制備高功率氮化銦鎵類發光二極體之晶粒。該高功率氮化銦鎵類發光二極體之晶粒將可用於測定發光二極體之相對發光強度以及遠場光型的量測。根據實驗之結果,首先,無論二維光子晶體之排列以及形狀為何,氮化銦鎵類發光二極體之光萃取增益均於空氣佔有於51%時達到最大值,且隨著空氣佔有率之變化均有一類似之趨勢;再者,當具有六角排列二維光子晶體之發光二極體晶粒操作於350微安培時,其光輸出功率相較於不具結構之晶粒可大幅提升達81.9%;又,六角排列之光萃取增益優於四角排列,且具有較明顯之側邊出光指向性,可符合顯示器之需求。


This doctoral dissertation utilizes two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals (PhCs) in different arrangement to investigate the correlation between the air duty cycle (ADC) and the light extraction enhancement (LEE) of InGaN-Based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The 2-D periodical nano PhCs were achieved by using e-beam lithography and the dry etching technique.
Implementing 2-D PhCs to improve the light extraction efficiency of InGaN-based LEDs has been pursued widely, due to the significant improvement of the LEE while using PhCs. Thus, in implementing 2-D PhCs, there are three main parameters should be taken into consideration carefully. They are lattice constant, depth, and ADC. Until now, there have been few literature reports on investigating the correlation between the ADC and the LEE of the InGaN-based LEDs so far. As a result, the correlation between the ADC and the LEE of InGaN-Based LEDs is investigated in this dissertation.
The design and fabrication of 2-D PhCs and characterizations works are performed in the study. In optical measurement, micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements were used to provide comparison of the relative PL intensity. Integrating sphere (IS) measurements were used to decide the relative spectral radiant flux and also verify the trend observed in the μ-PL measurements. In addition, the characterizations of the LED devices were performed for extracting the light output power (LOP) and the far field radiation patterns of the LEDs. The finding first shows that the correlation between the ADC and the LEE of the 2-D PhCs LEDs is independent of the geometry and the shape of the 2-D PhCs, the LEE all reaches maximum value with the ADC of 51 % and has similar ADC dependent characteristic; besides, the LOP of the 2-D PhCs LEDs in hexagonal lattice arrangement (HLA) with the ADC of 51% are significantly improved by 81.9% as compared to the reference LED at an injection current of 350 mA; moreover, the better side-directional emission property of the 2-D PhCs LEDs in HLA than that in square lattice arrangement (SLA) has also been reported, which satisfies the requirement of display.


口試委員會審定書……………………………..………………...……...i
英文簽名頁……………………….…………………………...………...ii
誌謝…………………………….……………………………...…………..iii
中文摘要…………………………………….………………...………......vi
Abstract….………………………………………….………….……….viii
Contents………………………………………..……………..……....x
List of Figures………………………………….………...……………xiii
List of Table……………………………….………...……………..xvii

Chapter 1 Introduction…....………….…………...……….…….....1
1.1 The brief history of InGaN-based LEDs……...….……......……...1
1.2 Limitation of light extraction efficiency of InGaN-based LEDs…………...…………………..…..............................3
1.3 Methods used to increase the light extraction efficiency…...….…5
1.4 Photonic crystals (PhCs) based LEDs………………………..…...6
1.5 The organization of this doctoral dissertation…………………….7

Chapter 2 Experiments……………………………………………...….12
2.1 The epitaxy structures and the growth conditions of InGaN-based LEDs……………................................................................……12
2.2 The definition of air duty cycle (ADC) in square lattice
arrangement (SLA) and in hexagonal lattice arrangement
(HLA)…………………...….…………………………………...13
2.3 2-D PhCs with different arrangement prepared by E-beam lithography…..........................................................................….13
2.4 Measurement setup…….……...…………………………..…..16
2.4.1 Focus ion beam (FIB) system.....................................….16
2.4.2 Atomic force microscope (AFM)…...........................….17
2.4.3 Optical measurements: micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) system and integrating sphere (IS) system................….17
2.4.4 Electroluminescence (EL) and far field radiation pattern measurement.............................................................….18

Chapter 3 The Correlation between the Air Duty Cycle and the Light Extraction Enhancement of 2-D rectangular pillar PhCs (RP-PhCs) InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes……...........35
3.1 Optical measurement by using μ-PL system…….….…...………35
3.2 Optical measurement by using IS system…….…………….36
3.3 EL measurement…………………………………………………39
3.4 Far field radiation pattern measurement…….….…...……..……40

Chapter 4 Further Discussion…………....…………………….……..…48
4.1 The optical characteristics of InGaN-Based LEDs with 2-D cylinder PhCs which have different ADCs….……….…………48
4.2 The optical characteristics of InGaN-Based LEDs with 2-D RP-PhCs which have period of 450 nm and different ADCs..49
4.3 The optical characteristics of InGaN-Based LEDs with 2-D RP-PhCs which have different depths and ADCs………………50

Chapter 5 The Correlation between the Air Duty Cycle and the Light Extraction Enhancement of 2-D rectangular hole PhCs (RH-PhCs) InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes……..….....58
5.1 The fabrication of 2-D rectangular hole PhCs LEDs in SLA and in
HLA…………………………………………………….…….…58
5.2 The optical characteristics of 2-D RH-PhCs InGaN-Based LEDs
with different ADCs in SLA and in HLA………...…………….59
5.3 Comparison between 2-D RP-PhCs LEDs and 2-D RH-PhCs
LEDs……………………………………………………………61

Chapter 6 Conclusion………………………………….……………......69

References………………………………………………………………...71
Appendix : Publication List…………………………….…………………80


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