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研究生:陳耀甥
研究生(外文):Yao-Sheng Chen
論文名稱:金屬膜蛋白對碳氫化合物之代謝作用
論文名稱(外文):Metabolism of Hydrocarbon Compounds By Membrane-Bound Metalloenzymes
指導教授:張繼堯張繼堯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Yao Chang
口試委員:鄒德里廖文亮林富邦
口試委員(外文):M. Der-Lii TzouWen-Lian LiaoFu-Pang Lin
口試日期:2014-06-19
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:漁業科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:金屬酵素膜結合型脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238;超級家族長鏈多重不飽和脂肪酸脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238;延長&;#37238;二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;
外文關鍵詞:membrane-metalloproteinmembrane-bound fatty acid desaturase superfamilylong-chain polyunsaturated fatty acidsfatty acid desaturaseelongasexylene monooxygenase
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金屬酵素為生物體細胞中重要的催化反應酵素,而其中又以帶有非血基質雙鐵中心的蛋白最為重要。第三類型非血基質雙鐵中心金屬酵素包括膜結合型脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238;超級家族之蛋白,對環狀、飽和烷烴類及不飽和烷烴類化合物進行去飽和及單加氧催化反應。
斑馬魚Δ-5/Δ-6脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238;(Z-FADS)在長鏈不飽和脂肪酸( long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, LC-PUFAs)催化與生合成過程中扮演重要角色。以螢光共振能量轉移(fluorescence resonance energy transfer, FRET)證明斑馬魚Z-FADS蛋白會與第二及第三型細胞色素b5還原&;#37238;(cytochrome b5 reductase, CYB5R2及CYB5R3)及四種延長&;#37238;(elongation of very long chain fatty acids, ELOVL, ELOVL2, 4, 5及7)產生交互作用。將斑馬魚fads、elovl2、elovl4及elovl5基因同時轉染至HeLa細胞,以α-次亞麻油酸(α-linolenic acid, ALA)為反應起始物,以氣相層析圖譜分析法,證明斑馬魚ω3系列長鏈不飽和脂肪酸生合成過程中,特別是DHA及EPA的生合成需要Z-FADS、ELOVL5、ELOVL2及ELOVL4的協同作用。此外以西方墨點法及免疫螢光染色分析,也證明斑馬魚Z-FADS除了在內質網表現外,亦會存在於細胞的粒線體中。為了瞭解金屬酵素之催化反應機制,以同屬於膜結合型脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238;超級家族之原核生物蛋白─二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;為模式進行研究。免疫共沉澱法及免疫金標誌分析證明,在催化反應過程中,還原&;#37238;會與催化酵素本體結合而形成複合體,而未形成複合體之電子傳遞本體會出現在細胞質中靠近細胞膜處,且證明在催化過程中,催化酵素本體與電子傳遞本體比例不等量,催化酵素本體多於電子傳遞本體。以二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;對反應物催化活性分析,證明二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;除了會催化苯環類化合物,亦會對短鏈不飽和烷烴類化合物進行催化反應,而含氟化合物更證明,含氟化合物更可改善催化反應效率。
本論文同時以真核及原核生物之膜結合型脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238;為研究主軸,分析金屬酵素在催化反應過程中,反應口袋與反應物之間的交互作用。證明斑馬魚Z-FADS在DHA及EPA生合成過程中所扮演之角色,同時透過二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;為模式更證明,疏水性反應口袋可有效的對不同反應物進行特定部位的催化反應。


The membrane metallo-proteins (MMPs) are important catalytic enzyme in organism, particularly the non-heme diiron containing proteins. Membrane-bound fatty acids desaturase superfamily proteins (membrane-FADS superfamily proteins) are classified into type Ⅲ non-heme diiron center proteins that catalyze desaturation and/or monooxygenation in hydrocarbons including aromatics, saturated and unsaturated.
Zebrafish Δ-5/Δ-6 fatty acid desaturase (Z-FADS) catalyzes cascade synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and plays pivotal roles in many biological functions. In this study, we deployed the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to examine the protein-protein interactions between Z-FADS and cytochrome b5 reductases (CYB5R1-3), elongases 2, 4, 5, 7 (elongation of very long chain fatty acids, ELOVL), respectively and the results indicated that, in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Z-FADS can be in close proximity to CYB5R2, 3, and ELOVL protein family, including ELOVL2, 4, 5 and 7, respectively. Furthermore, in the gas chromatography analysis, we proved that the HeLa cells co-transfected with fads, elovl2, 4 and 5 catalyze α-linolenic acid to ω3-series LC-PUFAs, especially the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Additional data from immuno-fluorescence cytochemistry (IFC) and Western blotting studies demonstrated that Z-FADS also resides in the mitochondria of zebrafish fads transfected HeLa cells. Our results implicated that Z-FADS, the sole fatty acid desaturase ever been identified in zebrafish, can serve as a universal fatty acid desaturase for the whole lipogenesis process.
Xylene monooxygenase (XylM), a non-heme diiron monooxygenase from the prokaryotic system, Pseudomonas putida mt-2, can catalyze toluene to benzyl alcohol and xylene to 4-methylbenzyl alcohol. An E. coli system heterogeneously transformed with part of an TOL operon including the overexpression of XylM and its partner protein of oxidoreductase, XylA, is constructed for its application of whole-cell catalysis. The protein expressions of XylM and XylA in this system are verified by the studies of Western blotting analysis, co-immune-precipitation as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with immune-gold staining experiments. Several substrates including fluorinated butane are designed to study their enzymatic activities. Our results indicated that the aromatic residue(s) within this metalloprotein play important roles for its controlled hydroxylation.
In overall, I exploited both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane-bound non-heme iron proteins including FADS superfamily as my target proteins and pave my way towards understanding the role of Z-FADS on DHA and EPA biosynthesis in Zebrafish as well as showing the promiscuity of hydrophobic pocket in xylene monooxygenase can efficiently achieve selective oxidations in a variety of substrates.


目 錄
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………....i
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………..iii
目錄………………………………………………………………………...v
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………..ix
表目錄……………………………………………………………………..xi
第一章、 前言……………………………………………………………...1
第二章、 材料與方法…………………………………………………….13
2.1 實驗材料………………………………………….………………..….13
2.1.1實驗物種………………………………….……………………..….13
2.1.2實驗菌種…………………………………….…………………..….13
2.1.3實驗細胞…………………………………………….……………...13
2.1.4實驗質體…………….…………………………………………..….13
2.1.5實驗溶液……………….…………………………………………...13
2.1.6實驗生物培養…..………………….……………………………….16
2.2 實驗方法:真核生物…………………………………………….……18
2.2.1斑馬魚總體RNA (Total RNA) 萃取與互補DNA合成…………..18
2.2.2斑馬魚脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238;、延長&;#37238;及細胞色素b5還原&;#37238; (CYB5R)選殖、序列分析與載體構築……………………………………………..18
2.2.3細胞轉染(Transfection)與免疫螢光染色分析(Immunofluorescence cytochemistry, IFC)…………………………...…………………………..24
2.2.4螢光共振能量轉移 (Fluorescence resonance energy transfer, FRET)及ELOVLs穿膜構造分析...……………………………………………..25
2.2.5 Z-FADS在HeLa細胞內表現與定位分析 (Subcellular localization)…………………………….....................................................27
2.2.6 DHA及EPA生物合成與脂肪酸甲酯 (Fatty acid methyl ester)分析………………………………………………………………………… 29
2.3 實驗方法:原核生物………………………….……………………….31
2.3.1假單孢菌基因體DNA (Genomic DNA)萃取………….….……….31
2.3.2二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;(Xylene monooxygenase, xylM)及其電子傳遞蛋白(Xylene monooxygenase electron transfer component, xylA)之選殖、基因分析與共同表現載體構………………………………………...………..31
2.3.3 pACYC-Duet-1-XylA-XylM共同表現載體誘導表現分………….32
2.3.4二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;複合體(xylene monooxygenase complex)蛋白活性分析………………………………………………………...……………..33
2.3.5定點突變 (Site-directed mutagenesis, SDM)……………...……….34
2.3.6 xylM及xylA蛋白之西方墨點分析 (Western blotting)與免疫共沉澱試驗(Co-Immunerecipitation assay)…………………………...………35
2.3.7二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;複合體免疫金標誌分析 (Immune-gold labelling) ……………………………………………………...…………..37

第三章、 結果…………………………………………………………….38
3.1 真核生物………………………………………………………………38
3.1.1 斑馬魚脂肪酸去飽和&;#37238; (Z-FADS)、延長&;#37238;(ELOVLs)及細胞色素b5還原&;#37238;(CYB5R)之序列分析與表現載體構築………………..38
3.1.2 Z-FADS、CYB5R和ELOVL在轉染後HeLa細胞中的表現觀察…………………………………………………………………...41
3.1.3 螢光共振能量轉移分析…………………………………………...49
3.1.4 ELOVL2、ELOVL4、ELOVL5及ELOVL7膜蛋白之穿膜結構分析……………………………………………………….…………..53
3.1.5 Z-FADS在細胞內表現與胞器定位分析…………………………56
3.1.6 DHA及EPA生物合成與脂肪酸甲酯分析………………………58
3.2 原核生物………………………………………………………………61
3.2.1 Xylene monooxygenase complex 序列分析………………………61
3.2.2 Xylene monooxygenase 蛋白質複合體共同表現載體構築與蛋白質誘導表現分析…….……………………………………………..64
3.2.3 Xylene monooxygenase蛋白質複合體活性分析…………………65
3.2.4 Xylene monooxygenase蛋白質複合體定點突變分析……………70
3.2.5 Xylene monooxygenase complex西方墨點分析與免疫共沉澱試驗………..………………………….………………………………73
3.2.6 Xylene monooxygenase complex免疫金標誌分析…………….…75
第四章、 討論…………………………………………………………….78
4.1 真核生物…………………………………………….………………...78
4.2 原核生物………………………………………………….…………...88
第五章、 結論…………………………………………………………...100
第六章、 參考文獻……………………………………………………...102
附圖……………………………………………………………………...116















圖目錄
圖一、Z-FADS與小鼠及人類第一型(FADS1)、第二型(FADS2)及第三型(FADS3)去飽和&;#37238;蛋白質序列比分析.............................................................................................38
圖二、斑馬魚細胞色素b5還原&;#37238;蛋白質序列相似性分析……………………..…..40
圖三、斑馬魚ELOVL2、ELOVL4、ELOVL5及ELOVL7蛋白質序列相似性分析…41
圖四、DsRed-CYB5R1分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP螢光表現分析….42
圖五、DsRed-CYB5R2分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP螢光表現分析….42
圖六、DsRed-CYB5R3分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP螢光表現分析….43
圖七、DsRed-ELOVL2分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP螢光表現分析….43
圖八、DsRed-ELOVL4分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP螢光表現分析….44
圖九、DsRed-ELOVL5分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP螢光表現分析….44
圖十、DsRed-ELOVL7分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP螢光表現分析….45
圖十一、ELOVL2蛋白表現、免疫螢光染色及分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP之螢光表現分析………………………………………………………………...46
圖十二、ELOVL4蛋白表現、免疫螢光染色及分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP之螢光表現分析………………………………………………………...………47
圖十三、ELOVL5蛋白表現、免疫螢光染色及分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP之螢光表現分析………………………………………………………...………48
圖十四、ELOVL7蛋白表現、免疫螢光染色及分別與EGFP-Z-FADS及Z-FADS-EGFP之螢光表現分析………………………………………………………...………49
圖十五、斑馬魚Z-FADS蛋白與CYB5R及ELOVL蛋白螢光共振能量轉移分析….52
圖十六、His-ELOVLs-FLAG融合蛋白穿膜構造分析…..………………………….54
圖十七、His-ELOVLs-FLAG融合蛋白HeLa細胞內的免疫螢光染色分………….55
圖十八、斑馬魚Z-FADS於HeLa細胞內表現與胞器定位分析…………………….58
圖十九、DHA及EPA生物合成與脂肪酸甲酯分析…………………………………59
圖二十、Pseudomonas putida mt-2 XylM與XylA蛋白序列保守區資料庫比對(Conserved Domains Database, CDD),及以MEGA5進行蛋白質序列相似性分析…63
圖二十一、 pACYC-Duet-1-XylA-XylM共同表現質體於不同宿主細胞蛋白表現分析…………………………………………………………….…………………………64
圖二十二、苯環類化合物以xylene monooxygenase作用產生相對應之羥基化產物……………………………………………………………………………………….66
圖二十三、不飽和烷烴類化合物經xylene monooxygenase作用產生的相對應之羥基化產物………………………………………….……………………………………69
圖二十四、Wild type與突變型xylene monooxygenase與Toluene反應之GC-MS圖譜……………………………………………………………………………………….71
圖二十五、XylM-His與XylA-FLAG蛋白質西方墨點分析………………….……73
圖二十六、Xylene monooxygenase complex以anti-His tag抗體進行免疫共沉澱分析……………………………………………………………………………………….74
圖二十七、XylA-FLAG蛋白於BL-21 (DE3)表現部位之免疫金標誌分析…………75
圖二十八、XylM-His蛋白於BL-21 (DE3)表現部位之免疫金標誌分析……………77
圖二十九、斑馬魚ω3及ω6系列脂肪酸生合成途徑圖…..……………..………….87
圖三十、XylM蛋白穿膜構造拓譜(topology)預測與定點突變相對位置圖…………96









表目錄
表一、斑馬魚fads、elovl及cyb5r基因之PCR引子對與PCR片段之相對應質體,英文字母下方線條代表限制&;#37238;切位,雙重下方線條表示為額外增加之序列………………………………………………………………………………….……21
表二、pACYC-Duet1-XylM-XylA 表現質體構築之引子對…………………..…….32
表三、Xylene monooxygenase複合體活性分析之反應物總表………………………34
表四、XylM定點突變之引子………………………………………………………….35
表五、斑馬魚Z-FADS蛋白與CYB5R及ELOVL蛋白螢光共振能量轉移及螢光基團距離………………………………………………………………………………….52
表六、二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;複合體對苯環類化合物、不飽和烷烴類化合物及飽和類氟化物催化反應效率……………………………………………………………………….70
表七、二甲苯單加氧&;#37238;W321A、W333A及W355A定點突變針對甲苯之催化效率分析…………………………...………………………………………………………..73


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