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研究生:張庭彰
研究生(外文):Ting-Chang Chang
論文名稱:飼料中添加天然消化酵素對點帶石斑魚稚魚成長及腸道型態的影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of dietary with natural digestive enzymes on growth and intestine morphology of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
指導教授:廖文亮
口試委員:丁雲源葉信利張繼堯
口試日期:2014-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:漁業科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:49
中文關鍵詞:點帶石斑消化酵素腸道結構
外文關鍵詞:orange-spotted grouperdigestive enzymesintestine structure
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在畜產商業飼料中,添加消化酵素來增加成長及飼料效率已有相當多的研究,而水產飼料則相對較少。本研究目的為探討使用天然消化酵素添加於點帶石斑(Epinephelus coioides)稚魚飼料中,餵養五周後依據石斑魚的增重率、飼料效率及蛋白質效率(WG、FE、PER),以及腸道的型態變化來評估出最適的添加量。實驗中設計五組配方,主要蛋白質來源為65%魚粉,分別添加0、0.05、0.1、0.15、0.2%的綜合天然消化酵素,另外考慮酵素在製作過程及腸道內消化之穩定度,分為使用明膠、寒天(Gelatin及 Agar)包覆的包覆組(A1~A5)及無包覆組(B1~B5)兩群組共十組實驗,飼料粗蛋白質含量在46.87%~48.44%之間,粗脂質則為9.96%~11.85%。實驗魚隻平均體重4.44±1.093g,每組15尾各三重複,飼養於室外流水式水泥池內箱網(30X30X45 cm)。每天早晚各餵食一次,每次餵至飽食。結果顯示包覆組添加0.1%的A3組有較好的增重率(341%)及較佳的飼料效率(120%)與蛋白質效率(2.53):而未包覆的同樣是添加0.1%的B3組有較佳的增重率(345%),飼料效率則與添加0.05%、0.15%的B2及B4組三組為最高,依序為115%、119%、116%,蛋白質效率則是B3及B4組的2.46、2.48最高。各組之體組成、存活率及肝體比無顯著差異。而根據腸道切片的結果顯示,添加酵素確實對腸道結構會造成影響,A3、A4及B3在肌肉厚度、絨毛的密度及長度上擁有較佳的吸收優勢。所以根據結果評估,在飼料中添加市售的天然綜合消化酵素不需要另外包覆,且在飼料中添加0.1~0.15%會有較好的成長表現及改善腸道結構的優勢,為最適合的添加量。

There have been many studies to enhanced the percent weight gain and feed efficiency by added digestive enzymes in the commercial diets of stock raising,but less in aquaculture.The aim of present study was to assess the best amount according to the weight gain、feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio(WG、FE、PER) and observation the intestine morphology of adding natural digestive enzymes in the diets of orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioides) for five weeks.
The experiment design five formuladiets,main protein source is 65% fish meal,adding 0、0.05、0.1、0.15、0.2% natural digestive enzymes respectively, consider the stability of enzymes at the process of diets making and digestion in intestine, divided into two group,one is coating by gelatin and agar(A1~A5) another is not(B1~B5).The results showed that fishes fed with the encapsulated experimental diets in A3 group have best weight gain (341%) and feed efficiency (120%)and protein efficiency ratio (2.53). And fishes fed with the unencapsulated experimental diets in B3 have best weight gain(345%). B2,B3,B4 have best feed efficiency(115%、119%、116%). B3, B4 have best protein efficiency ratio(2.46,2.48).There are no significant difference in body composition, survival rate and HIS each group. According to histological sections of the intestines, the results showed that adding digestive enzymes will influence the structure of intestine. A3、A4 and B3 have better advantages of absorb which show thick intestine muscle, long villus. According to the results, diets with natural digestive enzymes have best growth performance and better intestine structure in 0.1~0.15%。


謝辭 .....................................I
摘要 .....................................II
Abstract .............................III
目錄 .....................................IV
表目錄 .....................................VI
圖目錄 .....................................VII
第1章 前言 .............................1
第2章 文獻整理 .............................3
2.1.點帶石斑魚(Epinephelus coioides)簡介 .....3
2.1.1.點帶石斑魚分類地位 .....................3
2.1.2.形態特徵與生態習性 .....................3
2.1.3.養殖歷史與現況 .....................4
2.2魚類的消化生理 .............................7
2.3.石斑幼魚消化系統發展 .....................9
2.4.石斑魚營養需求 .............................10
2.5.消化酵素 .............................12
2.5.1.消化酵素介紹 .............................12
2.5.2.消化酵素在飼料上的應用.....................14
2.6.研究目的 .............................15
第3章 材料與方法 .............................16
3.1.試驗魚種 .............................16
3.2.飼養環境 .............................16
3.3.實驗過程 .............................16
3.4.實驗飼料 .............................17
3.5.一般成分分析 .............................18
3.5.1.水分 .............................18
3.5.2.灰分 .............................18
3.5.3.粗蛋白質分析.............................18
3.5.4.粗脂質分析 .............................19
3.6.組織切片觀察 .............................20
3.6.1.組織固定 .............................20
3.6.2組織脫水與包埋 .....................20
3.6.3.組織切片 .............................20
3.7.成長指標 .............................21
3.8.統計分析 .............................22
第4章 結果 .............................23
4.1.飼料成分含量分析 .....................23
4.2.成長指標結果 .............................23
4.2.1.增重率 .............................23
4.2.2.飼料效率(FE) .....................24
4.2.3.蛋白質效率(PER) .....................24
4.2.4.肝體比(HSI) .............................24
4.2.5存活率 .............................24
4.3.魚體組成分析 .............................25
4.4.組織切片觀察 .............................25
第5章 討論 .............................26
5.1.飼料配方 .............................26
5.2.添加消化酵素對成長表現的影響 .............27
5.3.添加消化酵素對腸道型態的影響 .............29
第6章結論 .....................................31
參考文獻 .....................................32
附錄


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