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研究生:江家銘
研究生(外文):Jia-Ming Jiang
論文名稱:電動輔助自行車中置馬達最佳化設計
論文名稱(外文):Optimal design of a middle motor for a pedal electric cycle
指導教授:陽毅平陽毅平引用關係
口試委員:李志中彭明燦
口試日期:2014-07-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:電動自行車永磁無刷馬達軸向磁通擺線減速機有限元素分析軟磁複合材料
外文關鍵詞:Electric bikebrushless permanent magnet motoraxial fluxcycloidal speed reducerfinite element analysisSoft magnetic composite
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本文提出電動輔助自行車薄形中置式永磁馬達的最佳設計。此中置馬達是一個軸向磁通薄型馬達,藉由結合馬達轉子與擺線盤使其在同一平面上,故本研究設計一款動力組,包含一軸向磁通馬達與擺線減速機,達到薄型化的效果,並使空間利用率最大。也因為擺線減速機耐用與堅固之特性,本文動力組相較於其他動力組更為耐用與堅固,適合用於易產生衝擊與碰撞之自行車上。
  本文先計算電動自行車的動力規格,並決定控制方法及選擇減速機與馬達類型。接著設計擺線減速機之規格參數與效率計算,並依此推算馬達需求規格。然後挑選馬達的類型、繞線方式、槽數與極數,以及繞線規劃,並利用磁路模型求解氣隙磁通密度,進一步求得馬達性能。再以多目標函數的最佳化,得到一組最佳的馬達參數尺寸,利用有限元素分析軟體進行驗證,最後進行製造與測試,實驗數據結果顯示感應電動勢與模擬值雖然只差7%,然而馬達力矩卻因軸承的摩擦力以及霍爾感測器的精度不足下降至原設計規格的一半。


Pure electric bikes or pedal electric cycles have been welcomed as a kind of new personal transportation. This paper proposes a novel design of a middle motor for pedal electric cycles. This middle motor is an axial-flux permanent magnet brushless dc motor with a stator plate, facing which is a rotor plate as part of a cycloidal reducer next to the stator. The whole set of middle motor and cycloidal reducer is easily installed along the same axle of the crankset of bike.
In the preliminary design, driving requirements are used to make specifications of the middle motor. The numbers of stator slots and magnet poles on rotor are then chosen for a best winding factor and the winding layout is determined accordingly. A one-dimensional magnetic circuit model of the middle motor is built and its shape optimized by using a multifunctional optimization system tool. Finally, the resulting design is verified and refined by the finite element analysis.
A prototype middle motor is fabricated. A new material, soft magnet composite, is used to replace traditional silica steel for stator. The neodymium magnets (NdFeB) are mounted on the rotor surface for its high magnet energy density. Experimental results show that the maximum torque is about 60% of what was designed because of the significant friction exerted from mechanical assemblies. However, the back electromotive force is sinusoidal and the motor is easily and efficiently controlled by sinusoidal current inputs.


中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
圖目錄 v
表目錄 x
符號表 xii
1 第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
圖1 1 石油價格趨勢 1
圖1 2 中國大陸兩輪交通工具銷售趨勢[2] 2
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.3 研究創意與動機 9
1.4 論文章節架構 18
2 第二章 中置動力組介紹 19
2.1 自行車規格設計 19
2.2 擺線減速機概述 26
2.3 永磁無刷馬達介紹 29
2.4 電動輔助整合式薄型動力組設計 33
2.5 電動輔助整合式薄型動力組動力分析[77] 35
2.6 電動輔助自行車控制策略 42
3 第三章 馬達設計 47
3.1 設計流程 47
3.2 繞線方式 48
3.3 槽數與極數 49
3.4 繞線規劃 52
4 第四章 基本磁路模型 55
4.1 磁路之基本原理 55
4.2 馬達基本尺寸定義 70
4.3 馬達磁路模型建立 72
4.4 靈敏度分析 80
4.5 多目標函數最佳化設計 88
4.6 直軸與交軸之數學轉換模型[92] 90
5 第五章 有限元素法分析與模擬 103
5.1 馬達模型建立與設定 103
5.2 分析結果與後處理討論 106
5.3 弱磁性能分析 116
5.4 熱分析 127
5.5 行車效率 128
6 第六章 製造與測試 130
6.1 製造流程 130
6.2 測試流程與方法 133
6.3 實驗設備 134
6.4 實驗結果與討論 137
7 第七章 結論 144
7.1 結果與討論 144
7.2 未來展望 145
參考文獻 147
附錄A 漆包線規格 157
附錄B SMC規格 158
附錄C 磁鐵規格 159
附錄D 馬達基本資料量測 160
附錄E 儀器規格 161


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