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研究生:郭承剛
研究生(外文):Chang-Gang Guo
論文名稱:應用粒子影像測速法分析多孔性圓柱燃燒器擴散火焰之流場
論文名稱(外文):PIV Measurement for Flow Field Analysis of Diffusion Flame over a Porous Cylindrical Burner
指導教授:潘國隆
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Long Pan
口試委員:王興華洪祖昌林成原
口試委員(外文):Ching-Hua WangZuu-chang,HongCherng-Yuan Lin
口試日期:2014-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:粒子影像測速儀 擴散火焰化學螢光法多孔圓柱燃燒器強制對流迴流區
外文關鍵詞:Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)chemiluminescencecylindrical burnerdiffusion flamerecirculation zoneforced convection
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本研究主要利用粒子影像測速儀,在強制對流環境下多孔圓柱燃燒器擴散火焰模式下之尾流區的熱流場分析,使用不鏽鋼材質的多孔性圓柱管為燃燒器,將燃料出口流率固定並調整強制對流的風速,分別為0.4 m/s (Re=24.85)、0.9 m/s (Re=74.55)、1.9 m/s (Re=157.3)、2.4 m/s (Re=199),其所對應之火焰型態分別為包絡焰、側焰、尾焰以及尾焰(無黃焰);另外使用化學螢光法,拍攝火焰之化學反應所激發之化學影像以及利用熱電偶量測圓柱周圍的溫度場,與粒子影像測速儀的結果作結合,探討流場結構與火焰之交互作用。
當火焰型態為包絡焰時,圓柱下游形成一低速之尾流區,但受浮力效應之影響,此時並無迴流區存在,大部分未反應的燃料往更下游處移動並且反應。將強制對流增強,圓柱上游停滯火焰面被破壞,火焰型態為側焰,上游空氣直接進入圓柱內部造成預混的作用,而在圓柱兩側部分,則形成小規模之迴流區使此區具有部分預混的效果,形成薄層藍焰穩定於側,&;#12310;C_2&;#12311;^*螢光反應在此處較為黯淡,顯示此處當量比較低。再將風速增強,形成尾焰,圓柱後方形成一對停滯的渦流,火焰尖端受迴流區影響,形成一凹入圓柱後方的圓弧曲線,此時在渦流中心與圓柱兩側附近有著較高之渦度,空氣與燃料在此處較能充分混合,使此型態火焰具有預混與擴散兩種模式。最後將風速再增強,此時圓柱後方迴流區擴大,中間之黃焰因迴流區流速過快而熄滅,空氣與燃料在迴流區內部加速混合並在圓柱兩側與圓柱下游面反應,因此形成一存在於圓柱兩側與圓柱下游面之薄層火焰型態。


The present study is aimed to understand the dynamic characteristics of flow field and flame downstream from the porous cylindrical burner. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was built to analyze the flow field qualitatively and quantitatively. In this research, the fuel flow rate is fixed while the upstream wind speed is set to 0.4 m/s (Re=24.85), 0.9 m/s (Re=77.55), 1.9 m/s (Re=157.3), 2.4 m/s (Re=199). The chemiluminescence images and the flame temperature distribution was compared with PIV. Influences on flow field pattern and structure of flame for four flame types could be investigated.
When the flame type is envelope flame, a low speed region is formed downstream from the porous cylinder. There is no recirculation zone exist because the effect of buoyancy. The flame in the forward stagnation region was unable to sustain where air went into the interior of cylindrical directly when wind speed enhanced. A small region of recirculation zone where fuel can be mixed with air was observed in both side of cylinder where &;#12310;C_2&;#12311;^* fluorescent reaction here is bleaker. We observed that there is a pair of large scale vortex could bring intermediate products and wasted heat to reaction zone behind the cylinder when the flame type is wake flame. We also observed that the shape of yellow flame front which looks like a concave curve downward is contributed to effect of recirculation zone. The range of recirculation zone was extended when the wind speed got higher. Thus the yellow flame was unable to be sustained due to the high velocity of recirculation zone. However, air and fuel were mixed more efficiently in recirculation zone and reacted on both sides of cylinder, then brings blue flame layer formed on both sides of the porous cylinder burner.


口試委員會審定書 ii
致謝 iii
摘要 iv
Abstract v
符號說明 vii
目錄 viii
圖目錄 xi
表目錄 xiv
第一章 前言 1
1.1簡介 1
1.2 研究動機 2
第二章 文獻回顧 - 3 -
2.1火焰燃燒模式 - 3 -
2.1.1擴散火焰(diffusion flame) - 3 -
2.1.2預混火焰(premixed flame) - 3 -
2.1.3部分預混火焰(partially premixed flame) - 4 -
2.2利用多孔性介質圓柱之相關研究 - 4 -
2.2.1可燃氣體供給速率對於火焰結構之影響 - 4 -
2.2.2多孔性圓柱燃燒器之數值模擬 - 6 -
2.3 Damkohler number對火焰熄滅的影響 - 9 -
2.4鈍體燃燒器之相關研究 - 10 -
2.5擴散火焰之化學螢光探討 - 12 -
第三章 實驗設備與器材 - 14 -
3.1燃料及氣體供給管路 - 15 -
3.1.1 LPG燃料 - 15 -
3.1.2空氣與氮氣管路系統 - 15 -
3.1.3燃料供給系統 - 17 -
3.1.4多孔介質圓柱燃燒器 - 17 -
3.2外流場設備 - 18 -
3.2.1鼓風機 - 18 -
3.2.2變頻器 - 19 -
3.2.3風洞 - 20 -
3.2.4三軸向定位平台 - 21 -
3.3影像記錄系統 - 22 -
3.4熱線測速儀(hot wire) - 23 -
3.5 CH 與 C2 radical濾鏡 - 24 -
3.6熱電偶(thermocouple) - 24 -
3.7 PIV之實驗設備 - 25 -
3.7.1光學系統 - 25 -
3.7.2粒子植入系統 - 26 -
第四章 實驗方法 - 28 -
4.1風洞出口之風速校正 - 28 -
4.2流量計校正 - 29 -
4.3強制對流下之擴散火焰型態拍攝 - 30 -
4.4火焰之化學螢光法觀測 - 30 -
4.5火焰溫度量測 - 31 -
4.6 PIV實驗之進行 - 32 -
4.6.1 PIV簡介 - 32 -
4.6.2 PIV原理介紹 - 32 -
4.6.3 PIV校正 - 34 -
4.6.4 PIV實驗要訣 - 35 -
第五章 結果與討論 - 37 -
5.1 燃燒器之火焰概述 - 37 -
5.1.1原始擴散火焰影像之分類 - 37 -
5.1.2 擴散火焰模式之可燃極限 - 39 -
5.1.3圓柱兩側添加氮氣對於燃燒之影響 - 39 -
5.2 火焰之化學螢光強度 - 41 -
5.3 流場分析 - 45 -
5.3.1平均流場之速度分佈 - 45 -
5.3.2平均流場之渦度分佈 - 56 -
5.3.3 瞬時流場 - 59 -
5.4 溫度場之分布 - 72 -
第六章 結論 - 75 -
6.1 結論 - 75 -
6.2 未來展望 - 77 -
參考文獻 - 78 -


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