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研究生:陳玟伶
研究生(外文):Wun-Ling Chen
論文名稱:食品用洗潔劑的殘留特性與評估
論文名稱(外文):The potential health risks posed by food detergents -residual characteristics and exposure assessment
指導教授:蔡詩偉蔡詩偉引用關係
口試委員:林嘉明陳美蓮
口試日期:2014-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:食品用洗潔劑殘留分析田口式方法壬基苯酚類化合物
外文關鍵詞:Food DetergentsResidual CharacteristicsTaguchi methodNonylphenolArsenicLead
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根據衛生福利部「食品安全衛生管理法」,食品用洗潔劑的定義是指直接使用於清潔食品、食品器具、食品容器及食品包裝之物質。目前市面上的食品用洗潔劑品牌眾多,且使用之原料不盡相同,為防止使用洗潔劑時,其不良成份殘留於食品或食品器具當中,並經由攝食途徑進入人體造成傷害,對食品用洗潔劑進行殘留風險評估絕對有其必要性。
本計畫首先以田口式實驗設計法(Taguchi Experimental Design)探討食品用洗潔劑在不同使用條件下,其不良成份的殘留情況,包括:辛基苯酚(4-tert-octylphenol, 4-t-OP)、壬基苯酚(4-nonylphenol, 4-NP)、含有異構物之壬基苯酚(nonylphenol technical mixture, t-NPs)、壬基酚聚乙氧基醇壬基苯酚單乙氧基醇(p-n-nonylphenol monoethoxylate, NP1EO)、砷(arsenic)及重金屬鉛(Lead),並藉由殘留分析試驗結果,推估人體暴露之平均每日攝取劑量。
本研究發現當食品用洗潔劑用於蔬果清洗時, 4-t-OP、t-NPs及4-NP的殘留皆低於偵測極限;而包括蔬果種類(蕃茄、葡萄、花椰菜、小黃瓜及蘑菇等)、分析物添加濃度、清潔劑濃度、浸泡時間、清洗時間及界面活性劑種類等因素,皆不會影響壬基酚類化合物(4-t-OP、t-NPs、4-NP)的殘留。重金屬部份,經使用洗潔劑後,砷在蔬果上殘留濃度範圍N.D.~0.37 μg/L,而影響殘留濃度的因素以蔬果種類的貢獻度最高(62.97%);至於鉛的殘留,濃度範圍N.D.~16.9 μg/L,而影響殘留濃度的因素以蔬果種類的貢獻度最高(71.64%),其次是清潔劑的使用濃度(10.52%)。
餐具殘留分析,以水為萃取溶劑的部份, 4-t-OP、t-NPs、4-NP及NP1EO的殘留濃度低於偵測極限;結果顯示,餐具材質(瓷器、玻璃、美耐皿、不鏽鋼及聚丙烯等)、清潔劑濃度、分析物添加濃度、浸泡時間、清洗時間及界面活性劑種類等因素,並不會影響4-t-OP、t-NPs、4-NP及NP1EO的殘留。重金屬部份,經使用洗潔劑後,砷在餐具上殘留濃度範圍N.D.~0.17 μg/L;而鉛的殘留,濃度範圍N.D.~4.67 μg/L。另一方面,以油為萃取溶劑的部份,4-t-OP的殘留濃度低於偵測極限;結果顯示,餐具材質、清潔劑濃度、分析物添加濃度、浸泡時間、清洗時間及界面活性劑種類等因素,並不會影響4-t-OP的殘留。而t-NPs在餐具上殘留濃度範圍N.D.~0.15 μg/mL。餐具殘留分析,在不同萃取溶劑部分,可以觀察到t-NPs在以油為萃取溶劑時,可以從餐具上溶出更多殘留濃度,以水為萃取溶液時,殘留濃度最大值為N.D.;以油為萃取溶劑時,殘留濃度最大值為0.15 μg/mL。
本研究結合了殘留分析數據與其他相關資料,進行了經由飲食初步攝取劑量估計;假設所有食入之蔬果皆經過含壬基苯酚類化合物與重金屬之食品清潔劑的清洗,且其殘留量皆為前述殘留之最高值,則國人男性每日經由食物攝取到As、Pb的最大可能含量分別為 0.11 μg/day與4.85 μg/day,而國人女性每日經由食物攝取到As、Pb之最大可能含量則分別為 0.13 μg/day與 5.87 μg/day。至於飲水方面,若以成人平均飲水量 2000mL 估計,並假設其飲水容器皆經過含壬基苯酚類化合物與重金屬之食品清潔劑的清洗,且其殘留量皆為前述殘留之最高值,則國內成人每日經由飲水而暴露到As、Pb的最大可能含量分別為 0.34 μg/day與 9.34 μg/day。而油的部分,若以成人平均每天攝取50mL估計,並假設其餐具皆經過含壬基苯酚類化合物之食品清潔劑的清洗,且其殘留量皆為前述殘留之最高值,則國內成人每日經由油而暴露到t-NPs的最大可能含量分別為 7.5 μg/day。然而,除了因使用殘留而造成的暴露之外,其他可能的來源或途徑,亦有必要再進一步研究。

According to the ‘Act Governing Food Safety and Sanitation’, food detergents are defined as the substances which can be utilized to clean food, food containers, appliances and packing. However, people’s health might be affected by widely-used detergents if the ingredients include arsenic, heavy metals (lead, for example) and nonylphenols. In order to promote public health and also to improve the quality of living, residual analysis for food detergents is a must.
In this study, residual analysis were performed to assess the health risks possibly caused by 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol technical mixture (t-NPs), p-n-nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), arsenic and lead. The Taguchi experimental design was utilized to study the main factors that might affect the residual characteristics after the using of detergents.
After applying the detergents on fruits and vegetables and following the cleaning procedures, it was found that the residual concentrations of 4-t-OP, t-NPs and 4-NP were all lower than the detection limits. Including the varieties of fruits and vegetables (i.e., tomato, grape, cauliflower, cucumber, and mushroom), the concentrations of the analytes spiked, the concentrations of detergents, soaking time, cleaning time and the types of surfactants were found to have no effects on the residual concentrations of 4-t-OP, t-NPs, and 4-NP. As for arsenic, the residual concentrations ranged from N.D.~0.37 μg/L. The most important factor to affect the residuals was the varieties of fruits and vegetables (62.97%). Regarding lead, the residual concentrations ranges from N.D.~16.9 μg/L. The most important factor to affect the residuals was the varieties of fruits and vegetables (71.64%), followed by the concentrations of detergents (10.52%).
After applying the detergent on tableware and following the cleaning procedures, it was found the residual concentrations of 4-t-OP、t-NPs、4-NP and NP1EO in water extraction solution were lower than the detection limits. This suggests that the factors investigated had no effects on the associated residuals. For arsenic, the residual concentrations ranges from N.D.~0.17 μg/L. For lead, the residual concentrations ranges from N.D.~4.67 μg/L. On the other hand, in oil extraction solution, it was found the residual concentrations of 4-t-OP was lower than the detection limits. This suggests that the factors investigated had no effects on the associated residuals. For t-NPs, the residual concentrations ranges from N.D.~0.15 μg/mL.
As for the assessment of human exposures, the average daily intakes from food ingestion and the remaining concentrations used as the maximum values have been evaluated and determined in our works. Based on our evaluation, the intakes of NP, arsenic and lead from contaminated vegetables and tableware are all below the upper limit for human beings. However, exposures from other sources, such as other environments, are not considered in this research. In addition, the maximum dose of the exposures from hazardous components through the use of household food detergents in Taiwan was estimated in this study. The highest concentrations of the associated chemicals found from the tests on residual characteristics were adopted for the worst-case calculations, and were compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) from WHO/FAO to assess the health risk.

Table of Contents
中文摘要 i
Abstract iii
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures viii
List of Tables ix
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 The food detergent 1
1.2 Hazardous components and their health effects 1
1.3 Literature review 2
1.4 Research objective 3
Chapter 2. Materials and Methods 5
2.1 Reagents and materials 5
2.2 Samples collection and preparation 6
2.2.1 Preparation for fruits analysis 7
2.2.2 Preparation for tableware analysis 8
2.3 Instrumentation 8
2.3.1 Instrumentation of NP 8
2.3.2 Instrumentation of arsenic and lead 12
2.4 Calibration and quantitations 13
2.4.1 Fruit samples 13
2.4.2 Water samples 13
2.4.3 Oil samples 14
Chapter 3. Experimental Design for Residual Analysis 15
3.1 Introduction of the Taguchi method 15
3.2 Experimental procedure 17
3.2.1 Residual analysis of fruits 17
3.2.2 Residual analysis of tableware 18
3.2.3 Analytical method and estimations for average daily intake dose 18
Chapter 4. Results and Discussions 20
4.1 Residual characteristics of NP, arsenic and lead on fruits from food detergents 20
4.2 Residual characteristics of NP, NPEO, arsenic and lead on tableware from food detergents 22
4.2.1 Water 22
4.2.2 Oil 23
4.2.3 Comparison between water and oil extraction 23
4.3 Maximum estimated dose of NP, arsenic and lead exposures from the use
of household food detergents in Taiwan 24
4.4 The limited value about t-NPs, arsenic and lead in life 25
Chapter 5. Conclusions 27
References 29


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