跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.211.239.1) 您好!臺灣時間:2023/02/05 21:08
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:吳泓彥
研究生(外文):Hon-Yen Wu
論文名稱:從白蛋白尿篩檢到高血壓治療:糖尿病照護的實證醫療
論文名稱(外文):From Albuminuria Screening to Antihypertensive Therapy: Evidence-Based Approaches in Diabetes Care
指導教授:簡國龍簡國龍引用關係杜裕康杜裕康引用關係
口試委員:賴美淑洪冠予唐德成
口試日期:2014-07-11
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:流行病學與預防醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:白蛋白尿血管收縮素轉化&;#37238;抑製劑血管收縮素受體阻斷劑鈣離子阻斷劑糖尿病透析利尿劑
外文關鍵詞:albuminuriaangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitorsangiotensin receptor blockerscalcium channel blockersdiabetesdialysisdiuretics
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:224
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
Background: Due to the rising incidence of diabetes and the constrained health care resources in many countries, comparative effectiveness research are gaining importance for assisting decision making on controversial issues. Measurement of a random urine sample for albumin concentration (UAC) without simultaneously measuring urine creatinine is less expensive than measuring albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), but whether their diagnostic performances for screening microalbuminuria are different has yet to be resolved. There is no consensus about the priority for treatments between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or the choice of antihypertensive drugs in combination with those renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. The objective of this dissertation is to synthesize current evidence using advanced meta-analysis methods to resolve controversies regarding microalbuminuria screening and antihypertensive therapy in diabetic patients, and evaluate the effects of different antihypertensive treatments in a nationwide cohort study of diabetic patients
Methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus) were systematically searched for studies assessing either UAC or ACR in detecting microalbuminuria among diabetic patients, and using urine albumin of 30-300 mg in 24-hour timed urine collection as the gold standard. Bivariate random-effects models were used for the pooling and comparisons of diagnostic performances. Four electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library) were systematically searched for randomized clinical trials of antihypertensive treatments (ACEIs, ARBs, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], diuretics, and their combinations), which reported all-cause death, long-term dialysis, or doubling of serum creatinine. Bayesian network meta-analysis was applied to combine direct and indirect evidence and estimate the relative effects between treatments. Adult patients from the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients of the National Health Insurance Research Database were assessed if they received at least 90 days of continuous antihypertensive treatment. Claims data including age, gender, comorbidities, income, occupation, geographic location, and outpatient prescriptions for antihypertensive drugs were obtained for each patient. Cox’s proportional hazard models were used to evaluate (1) ACEIs versus ARBs, and (2) CCBs versus thiazide diuretics as add-on treatment for RAS blockers, for the outcomes of long-term dialysis, acute kidney injury, hyperkalemia, and all-cause death.
Results: Meta-analysis of screening tests for microalbuminuria showed pooled sensitivities of 0.85 and 0.87 for UAC and ACR, respectively, and pooled specificities of 0.88 and 0.88, respectively. No differences in sensitivity or specificity between UAC and ACR were found. Network meta-analysis of antihypertensive treatments showed that only ACEIs significantly reduced the doubling of serum creatinine levels (odds ratio 0.58, 95% credible interval 0.32 to 0.90) compared with placebo. The beneficial effects of ACEIs compared with ARBs did not reach statistical significance. The treatment ranking identified the combination of ACEI plus CCB to have the greatest probability (73.9%) for being the best treatment on reducing mortality, followed by ACEI plus diuretic (12.5%). The nationwide cohort study showed no difference between ACEIs and ARBs for long-term dialysis, acute kidney injury, and hyperkalemia. ACEI users showed a significantly higher mortality than ARB users (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.44), but this result is not consistently shown in subgroup analyses. The combination of RAS blocker plus CCB showed significantly higher risks of long-term dialysis (2.12, 1.62 to 2.78) and hyperkalemia (1.32, 1.07 to 1.64) compared with the combination of RAS blocker plus thiazide diuretic.
Discussions and conclusions: UAC and ACR both yielded high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of microalbuminuria. Because the diagnostic performance of UAC is comparable to that of the ACR, we suggest UAC to be the screening tool of choice. As available evidence from experimental and observational studies is not able to clearly differentiate the protective effects of ACEIs and ARBs, we suggest the use of ACEIs as the first line antihypertensive agent in consideration of cost. The superior renoprotective effects of the combination of thiazide diuretic and RAS blocker required additional prospective studies to confirm. CCB therapy is the preferred add-on treatment if adequate blood pressure control cannot be achieved by ACEIs alone.


誌謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract IV
Table of Contents VII
List of Figures X
List of Tables XII
List of Appendixes XIV
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Diabetic nephropathy 1
1.1.1 Epidemiology and significance 2
1.1.2 Microalbuminuria in diabetic patients 3
1.1.3 Knowledge gap: choice of screening method for detecting microalbuminuria in diabetic patients 4
1.2 Hypertension in diabetic patients 5
1.2.1 Epidemiology and significance 5
1.2.2 Management of hypertension in diabetic patients 6
1.2.3 Knowledge gap: choice of antihypertensive therapy for diabetic patients 11
Chapter Two: Objectives 14
Chapter Three: Materials and Methods 16
3.1 Comparison between different screening tests for microalbuminuria in diabetic patients using meta-analysis strategy 16
3.1.1 Data sources and searches 16
3.1.2 Study selection 16
3.1.3 Data extraction and quality assessment 17
3.1.4 Data synthesis and analysis 18
3.2 Comparison between different antihypertensive treatments in diabetic patients using meta-analysis strategy 19
3.2.1 Data sources and searches 19
3.2.2 Study selection 20
3.2.3 Data extraction and quality assessment 20
3.2.4 Data synthesis and analysis 21
3.3 Evaluating the effects of different antihypertensive treatments in a nationwide cohort study of diabetic patients 23
3.3.1 Data sources 24
3.3.2 Study participants 25
3.3.3 Study design and exposure assessment 25
3.3.4 Primary and secondary outcomes 27
3.3.5 Statistical analysis 28
Chapter Four: Results 31
4.1 Comparison between different screening tests for microalbuminuria in diabetic patients using meta-analysis strategy 31
4.1.1 Search process 31
4.1.2 Study characteristics 31
4.1.3 Summary Diagnostic Performance Measures 32
4.2 Comparison between different antihypertensive treatments in diabetic patients using meta-analysis strategy 33
4.2.1 Search process 33
4.2.2 Study characteristics 34
4.2.3 Effects of antihypertensive treatments on all-cause mortality 35
4.2.4 Effects of antihypertensive treatments on long-term dialysis 37
4.2.5 Effects of antihypertensive treatments on doubling of serum creatinine 38
4.2.6 Comparisons between traditional pair-wise and Bayesian network meta-analyses 39
4.3 Evaluating the effects of different antihypertensive treatments in a nationwide cohort study of diabetic patients 39
4.3.1 Patient Characteristics 39
4.3.2 Analyses comparing ACEI therapy with ARB therapy 41
4.3.3 Analyses comparing the combination of ACEI/ARB plus CCB with the combination of ACEI/ARB plus thiazide diuretic 44
Chapter Five: Discussion 48
5.1 Comparison between different screening tests for microalbuminuria in diabetic patients using meta-analysis strategy 48
5.1.1 Main findings 48
5.1.2 Strengths of this study 48
5.1.3 Results in relation to other studies and reviews 49
5.1.4 Limitations of this study 50
5.2 Comparison between different antihypertensive treatments in diabetic patients using meta-analysis strategy 52
5.2.1 Main findings 52
5.2.2 Strengths of this study 53
5.2.3 Results in relation to other studies and reviews 54
5.2.4 Limitations of this study 58
5.3 Evaluating the effects of different antihypertensive treatments in a nationwide cohort study of diabetic patients 60
5.3.1 Main findings 60
5.3.2 Strengths of this study 61
5.3.3 Results in relation to other studies and reviews 61
5.3.4 Limitations of this study 67
5.4 Conclusions 69
References 71
Figures 85
Tables 103
Appendixes 139

1.Standards of medical care in diabetes--2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37 Suppl 1:S14-80.
2.Wu HY, Hung KY, Tu YK, Chien KL. Comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs in patients with diabetes. J Comp Eff Res. 2014;3(3):213-215.
3.Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lu Y, Singh GM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Lin JK, Farzadfar F, Khang YH, Stevens GA, Rao M, Ali MK, Riley LM, Robinson CA, Ezzati M. National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2.7 million participants. Lancet. 2011;378(9785):31-40.
4.Diabetes. World Health Organization; 2013. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/index.html. Accessed Feb 12, 2014.
5.Global health risks. Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
6.Lee SY, Chen YC, Tsai IC, Yen CJ, Chueh SN, Chuang HF, Wu HY, Chiang CK, Cheng HT, Hung KY, Huang JW. Glycosylated hemoglobin and albumin-corrected fructosamine are good indicators for glycemic control in peritoneal dialysis patients. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57762.
7.Yang WC, Hwang SJ. Incidence, prevalence and mortality trends of dialysis end-stage renal disease in Taiwan from 1990 to 2001: the impact of national health insurance. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(12):3977-3982.
8.Wu MS, Wu IW, Shih CP, Hsu KH. Establishing a Platform for Battling End-stage Renal Disease and Continuing Quality Improvement in Dialysis Therapy in Taiwan – Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS). Acta Nephrologica. 2011;25(3):148-153.
9.Chen PC, Chan YT, Chen HF, Ko MC, Li CY. Population-based cohort analyses of the bidirectional relationship between type 2 diabetes and depression. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(2):376-382.
10.Molitch ME, DeFronzo RA, Franz MJ, Keane WF, Mogensen CE, Parving HH, Steffes MW. Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27 Suppl 1:S79-83.
11.Fowler MJ. Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Clin Diabetes. 2008;26(2):77-82.
12.Wu HY, Peng YS, Chiang CK, Huang JW, Hung KY, Wu KD, Tu YK, Chien KL. Diagnostic Performance of Random Urine Samples Using Albumin Concentration vs Ratio of Albumin to Creatinine for Microalbuminuria Screening in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(7):1108-1115.
13.Wu HY, Huang JW, Peng YS, Hung KY, Wu KD, Lai MS, Chien KL. Microalbuminuria screening for detecting chronic kidney disease in the general population: a systematic review. Ren Fail. 2013;35(5):607-614.
14.Powers B, Greene L, Balfe LM. Updates on the treatment of essential hypertension: a summary of AHRQ''s comparative effectiveness review of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and direct renin inhibitors. J Manag Care Pharm. 2011;17(8 Suppl):S1-14.
15.MacLeod JM, Lutale J, Marshall SM. Albumin excretion and vascular deaths in NIDDM. Diabetologia. 1995;38(5):610-616.
16.KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49(2 Suppl 2):S12-154.
17.Chadban S, Howell M, Twigg S, Thomas M, Jerums G, Cass A, Campbell D, Nicholls K, Tong A, Mangos G, Stack A, MacIsaac RJ, Girgis S, Colagiuri R, Colagiuri S, Craig J. The CARI guidelines. Assessment of kidney function in type 2 diabetes. Nephrology (Carlton). 2010;15 Suppl 1:S146-161.
18.Varghese A, Deepa R, Rema M, Mohan V. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus at a diabetes centre in southern India. Postgrad Med J. 2001;77(908):399-402.
19.Parving HH, Lewis JB, Ravid M, Remuzzi G, Hunsicker LG. Prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in a referred cohort of type II diabetic patients: a global perspective. Kidney Int. 2006;69(11):2057-2063.
20.Type 2 Diabetes: National Clinical Guideline for Management in Primary and Secondary Care (Update). London: Royal College of Physicians of London; 2008.
21.K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(2 Suppl 1):S1-266.
22.Polkinghorne KR. Detection and measurement of urinary protein. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2006;15(6):625-630.
23.Torffvit O, Agardh CD. The impact of metabolic and blood pressure control on incidence and progression of nephropathy. A 10-year study of 385 type 2 diabetic patients. J Diabetes Complications. 2001;15(6):307-313.
24.Price CP, Newall RG, Boyd JC. Use of protein:creatinine ratio measurements on random urine samples for prediction of significant proteinuria: a systematic review. Clin Chem. 2005;51(9):1577-1586.
25.Ewald B, Attia J. Which test to detect microalbuminuria in diabetic patients? A systematic review. Aust Fam Physician. 2004;33(7):565-567, 571.
26.Wu PH, Lin YT, Lee TC, Lin MY, Kuo MC, Chiu YW, Hwang SJ, Chen HC. Predicting mortality of incident dialysis patients in Taiwan--a longitudinal population-based study. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61930.
27.Gansevoort RT, Verhave JC, Hillege HL, Burgerhof JG, Bakker SJ, de Zeeuw D, de Jong PE. The validity of screening based on spot morning urine samples to detect subjects with microalbuminuria in the general population. Kidney Int Suppl. 2005;67(94):S28-35.
28.Incerti J, Zelmanovitz T, Camargo JL, Gross JL, de Azevedo MJ. Evaluation of tests for microalbuminuria screening in patients with diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20(11):2402-2407.
29.Bakker AJ. Detection of microalbuminuria. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis favors albumin-to-creatinine ratio over albumin concentration. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(2):307-313.
30.Caramori ML, Fioretto P, Mauer M. Enhancing the predictive value of urinary albumin for diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(2):339-352.
31.Naresh CN, Hayen A, Craig JC, Chadban SJ. Day-to-day variability in spot urine protein-creatinine ratio measurements. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(4):561-566.
32.Lum G. How effective are screening tests for microalbuminuria in random urine specimens? Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2000;30(4):406-411.
33.Sampaio E, Delfino VD. Assessing albuminuria in spot morning samples from diabetic patients. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2008;52(9):1482-1488.
34.Wiegmann TB, Chonko AM, Barnard MJ, MacDougall ML, Folscroft J, Stephenson J, Kyner JL, Moore WV. Comparison of albumin excretion rate obtained with different times of collection. Diabetes Care. 1990;13(8):864-871.
35.Zelmanovitz T, Gross JL, Oliveira JR, Paggi A, Tatsch M, Azevedo MJ. The receiver operating characteristics curve in the evaluation of a random urine specimen as a screening test for diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):516-519.
36.Ahn CW, Song YD, Kim JH, Lim SK, Choi KH, Kim KR, Lee HC, Huh KB. The validity of random urine specimen albumin measurement as a screening test for diabetic nephropathy. Yonsei Med J. 1999;40(1):40-45.
37.Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, Bohm M, Christiaens T, Cifkova R, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, Galderisi M, Grobbee DE, Jaarsma T, Kirchhof P, Kjeldsen SE, Laurent S, Manolis AJ, Nilsson PM, Ruilope LM, Schmieder RE, Sirnes PA, Sleight P, Viigimaa M, Waeber B, Zannad F, Redon J, Dominiczak A, Narkiewicz K, Nilsson PM, Burnier M, Viigimaa M, Ambrosioni E, Caufield M, Coca A, Olsen MH, Schmieder RE, Tsioufis C, van de Borne P, Zamorano JL, Achenbach S, Baumgartner H, Bax JJ, Bueno H, Dean V, Deaton C, Erol C, Fagard R, Ferrari R, Hasdai D, Hoes AW, Kirchhof P, Knuuti J, Kolh P, Lancellotti P, Linhart A, Nihoyannopoulos P, Piepoli MF, Ponikowski P, Sirnes PA, Tamargo JL, Tendera M, Torbicki A, Wijns W, Windecker S, Clement DL, Coca A, Gillebert TC, Tendera M, Rosei EA, Ambrosioni E, Anker SD, Bauersachs J, Hitij JB, Caulfield M, De Buyzere M, De Geest S, Derumeaux GA, Erdine S, Farsang C, Funck-Brentano C, Gerc V, Germano G, Gielen S, Haller H, Hoes AW, Jordan J, Kahan T, Komajda M, Lovic D, Mahrholdt H, Olsen MH, Ostergren J, Parati G, Perk J, Polonia J, Popescu BA, Reiner Z, Ryden L, Sirenko Y, Stanton A, Struijker-Boudier H, Tsioufis C, van de Borne P, Vlachopoulos C, Volpe M, Wood DA. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2013;34(28):2159-2219.
38.James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, Lackland DT, LeFevre ML, MacKenzie TD, Ogedegbe O, Smith SC, Jr., Svetkey LP, Taler SJ, Townsend RR, Wright JT, Jr., Narva AS, Ortiz E. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520.
39.Lago RM, Singh PP, Nesto RW. Diabetes and hypertension. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007;3(10):667.
40.Sowers JR, Epstein M, Frohlich ED. Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: an update. Hypertension. 2001;37(4):1053-1059.
41.Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER, 3rd, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PH. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(1):3-10.
42.Sarafidis PA, Stafylas PC, Kanaki AI, Lasaridis AN. Effects of renin-angiotensin system blockers on renal outcomes and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetic nephropathy: an updated meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21(8):922-929.
43.Strippoli GF, Craig M, Schena FP, Craig JC. Antihypertensive agents for primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(10):3081-3091.
44.Hsu TW, Liu JS, Hung SC, Kuo KL, Chang YK, Chen YC, Hsu CC, Tarng DC. Renoprotective effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in patients with predialysis advanced chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and anemia. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(3):347-354.
45.Strippoli GF, Bonifati C, Craig M, Navaneethan SD, Craig JC. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists for preventing the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(4):CD006257.
46.Lv J, Perkovic V, Foote CV, Craig ME, Craig JC, Strippoli GF. Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:Cd004136.
47.So WY, Ozaki R, Chan NN, Tong PC, Ho CS, Lam CW, Ko GT, Chow CC, Chan WB, Ma RC, Chan JC. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on survival in 3773 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Hypertension. 2004;44(3):294-299.
48.Sueta CA, Russo A, Schenck A, Brown DW, Simpson RJ. Effect of angiotensin-converting inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker on one-year survival in patients >or=65 years hospitalized with a left ventricular ejection fraction >or=50%. American Journal of Cardiology. 2003;91(3):363-365.
49.de Goeij MC, Liem M, de Jager DJ, Voormolen N, Sijpkens YW, Rotmans JI, Boeschoten EW, Dekker FW, Grootendorst DC, Halbesma N, Group P-S. Proteinuria as a risk marker for the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients on predialysis care and the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment. Nephron. 2012;121(1-2):c73-82.
50.Setoguchi S, Shrank WH, Liu J, Lee JC, Saya U, Winkelmayer WC, Dreyer NA. Angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: challenges in comparative effectiveness using Medicare data. Clinical Pharmacology &; Therapeutics. 2011;89(5):674-682.
51.Zhang Y, Fonarow GC, Sanders PW, Farahmand F, Allman RM, Aban IB, Love TE, Levesque R, Kilgore ML, Ahmed A. A propensity-matched study of the comparative effectiveness of angiotensin receptor blockers versus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure patients age &;#8805; 65 years. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108(10):1443-1448.
52.Bakris GL, Toto RD, McCullough PA, Rocha R, Purkayastha D, Davis P. Effects of different ACE inhibitor combinations on albuminuria: results of the GUARD study. Kidney Int. 2008;73(11):1303-1309.
53.Bakris GL, Sarafidis PA, Weir MR, Dahlof B, Pitt B, Jamerson K, Velazquez EJ, Staikos-Byrne L, Kelly RY, Shi V, Chiang YT, Weber MA. Renal outcomes with different fixed-dose combination therapies in patients with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular events (ACCOMPLISH): a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375(9721):1173-1181.
54.Jamerson K, Weber MA, Bakris GL, Dahlof B, Pitt B, Shi V, Hester A, Gupte J, Gatlin M, Velazquez EJ. Benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(23):2417-2428.
55.Crook ED, Preddie DC. Relative effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists in advanced diabetic nephropathy. Ethnicity &; Disease. 2004;14(1):87-93.
56.Mann JF, Schmieder RE, McQueen M, Dyal L, Schumacher H, Pogue J, Wang X, Maggioni A, Budaj A, Chaithiraphan S, Dickstein K, Keltai M, Metsarinne K, Oto A, Parkhomenko A, Piegas LS, Svendsen TL, Teo KK, Yusuf S. Renal outcomes with telmisartan, ramipril, or both, in people at high vascular risk (the ONTARGET study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9638):547-553.
57.Parving HH, Brenner BM, McMurray JJ, de Zeeuw D, Haffner SM, Solomon SD, Chaturvedi N, Persson F, Desai AS, Nicolaides M, Richard A, Xiang Z, Brunel P, Pfeffer MA. Cardiorenal end points in a trial of aliskiren for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(23):2204-2213.
58.McAlister FA, Zhang J, Tonelli M, Klarenbach S, Manns BJ, Hemmelgarn BR, Alberta Kidney Disease N. The safety of combining angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors with angiotensin-receptor blockers in elderly patients: a population-based longitudinal analysis. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2011;183(6):655-662.
59.Hypertension: The Clinical Management of Primary Hypertension in Adults: Update of Clinical Guidelines 18 and 34. London: National Clinical Guideline Centre.; 2011.
60.KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes and CKD: 2012 Update. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(5):850-886.
61.Lumley T. Network meta-analysis for indirect treatment comparisons. Stat Med. 2002;21(16):2313-2324.
62.Lu G, Ades AE. Combination of direct and indirect evidence in mixed treatment comparisons. Stat Med. 2004;23(20):3105-3124.
63.Bucher HC, Guyatt GH, Griffith LE, Walter SD. The results of direct and indirect treatment comparisons in meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50(6):683-691.
64.Sciarretta S, Palano F, Tocci G, Baldini R, Volpe M. Antihypertensive treatment and development of heart failure in hypertension: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of studies in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(5):384-394.
65.Wandel S, Juni P, Tendal B, Nuesch E, Villiger PM, Welton NJ, Reichenbach S, Trelle S. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4675.
66.Tu YK, Needleman I, Chambrone L, Lu HK, Faggion CM, Jr. A Bayesian network meta-analysis on comparisons of enamel matrix derivatives, guided tissue regeneration and their combination therapies. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39(3):303-314.
67.Whiting P, Rutjes AW, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PM, Kleijnen J. The development of QUADAS: a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2003;3:25.
68.Glas AS, Lijmer JG, Prins MH, Bonsel GJ, Bossuyt PM. The diagnostic odds ratio: a single indicator of test performance. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003;56(11):1129-1135.
69.Thompson SG. Why sources of heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be investigated. BMJ. 1994;309(6965):1351-1355.
70.Deeks JJ, Macaskill P, Irwig L. The performance of tests of publication bias and other sample size effects in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy was assessed. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005;58(9):882-893.
71.Reitsma JB, Glas AS, Rutjes AW, Scholten RJ, Bossuyt PM, Zwinderman AH. Bivariate analysis of sensitivity and specificity produces informative summary measures in diagnostic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005;58(10):982-990.
72.Hamza TH, van Houwelingen HC, Stijnen T. The binomial distribution of meta-analysis was preferred to model within-study variability. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61(1):41-51.
73.Rutter CM, Gatsonis CA. A hierarchical regression approach to meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy evaluations. Stat Med. 2001;20(19):2865-2884.
74.Lijmer JG, Mol BW, Heisterkamp S, Bonsel GJ, Prins MH, van der Meulen JH, Bossuyt PM. Empirical evidence of design-related bias in studies of diagnostic tests. JAMA. 1999;282(11):1061-1066.
75.Higgins J, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.;Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org. Accessed Oct 1, 2011.
76.Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics. 1994;50(4):1088-1101.
77.Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315(7109):629-634.
78.Brooks SP, Gelman A. Alternative methods for monitoring convergence of iterative simulations. J Comput Graph Stat. 1998;7:434-445.
79.Lu G, Ades AE. Assessing Evidence Inconsistency in Mixed Treatment Comparisons. J Am Stat Assoc. 2006;101(474):477-459.
80.Dias S, Welton NJ, Caldwell DM, Ades AE. Checking consistency in mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2010;29(7-8):932-944.
81.Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Geddes JR, Higgins JP, Churchill R, Watanabe N, Nakagawa A, Omori IM, McGuire H, Tansella M, Barbui C. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9665):746-758.
82.van der Valk R, Webers CA, Lumley T, Hendrikse F, Prins MH, Schouten JS. A network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect comparisons between glaucoma drugs to rank effectiveness in lowering intraocular pressure. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(12):1279-1283.
83.Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, Milne A, Johnson D, Plint A, Klassen TP, Vandermeer B. Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;342:d1714.
84.Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40(5):373-383.
85.Deyo RA, Cherkin DC, Ciol MA. Adapting a clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45(6):613-619.
86.Lee HC, Chang KC, Huang YC, Hung JW, Chiu HH, Chen JJ, Lee TH. Readmission, mortality, and first-year medical costs after stroke. J Chin Med Assoc. 2013;76(12):703-714.
87.Tung YC, Chang GM, Chen YH. Associations of physician volume and weekend admissions with ischemic stroke outcome in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study. Med Care. 2009;47(9):1018-1025.
88.Grambsch PM, Therneau TM. Proportional hazards tests and diagnostics based on weighted residuals. Biometrika. 1994;81(3):515-526.
89.Houlihan CA, Tsalamandris C, Akdeniz A, Jerums G. Albumin to creatinine ratio: a screening test with limitations. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(6):1183-1189.
90.Ng WY, Lui KF, Thai AC. Evaluation of a rapid screening test for microalbuminuria with a spot measurement of urine albumin-creatinine ratio. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000;29(1):62-65.
91.Eshoj O, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Larsen ML, Mogensen EF. Comparison of overnight, morning and 24-hour urine collections in the assessment of diabetic microalbuminuria. Diabet Med. 1987;4(6):531-533.
92.Chaiken RL, Khawaja R, Bard M, Eckert-Norton M, Banerji MA, Lebovitz HE. Utility of untimed urinary albumin measurements in assessing albuminuria in black NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(5):709-713.
93.Gyamlani GG, Bergstralh EJ, Slezak JM, Larson TS. Urinary albumin to osmolality ratio predicts 24-hour urine albumin excretion in diabetes mellitus. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42(4):685-692.
94.Valizadeh M, Nasser Farahmand A, Mousavi Nasab N, Tabatabaei Malazy O. Determining the value of albumin to creatinine ratio in a single morning sample, compared to the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion test, for determining micro-albuminuria in diabetic patients. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders. 2009;8(1):27-36.
95.Bouhanick B, Berrut G, Chameau AM, Hallar M, Bled F, Chevet B, Vergely J, Rohmer V, Fressinaud P, Marre M. Predictive value of testing random urine sample to detect microalbuminuria in diabetic subjects during outpatient visit. Diabete Metab. 1992;18(1):54-58.
96.Schwab SJ, Dunn FL, Feinglos MN. Screening for microalbuminuria. A comparison of single sample methods of collection and techniques of albumin analysis. Diabetes Care. 1992;15(11):1581-1584.
97.Katayama K, Nomura S, Ishikawa H, Murata T, Koyabu S, Nakano T. Comparison between valsartan and valsartan plus cilnidipine in type II diabetics with normo- and microalbuminuria. Kidney Int. 2006;70(1):151-156.
98.Kohlmann O, Jr., Roca-Cusachs A, Laurent S, Schmieder RE, Wenzel RR, Fogari R. Fixed-dose manidipine/delapril versus losartan/hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Adv Ther. 2009;26(3):313-324.
99.Mehdi UF, Adams-Huet B, Raskin P, Vega GL, Toto RD. Addition of angiotensin receptor blockade or mineralocorticoid antagonism to maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(12):2641-2650.
100.Marre M, Lievre M, Chatellier G, Mann JF, Passa P, Menard J. Effects of low dose ramipril on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and raised excretion of urinary albumin: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial (the DIABHYCAR study). BMJ. 2004;328(7438):495.
101.Haller H, Ito S, Izzo JL, Jr., Januszewicz A, Katayama S, Menne J, Mimran A, Rabelink TJ, Ritz E, Ruilope LM, Rump LC, Viberti G. Olmesartan for the delay or prevention of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(10):907-917.
102.de Galan BE, Perkovic V, Ninomiya T, Pillai A, Patel A, Cass A, Neal B, Poulter N, Harrap S, Mogensen CE, Cooper M, Marre M, Williams B, Hamet P, Mancia G, Woodward M, Glasziou P, Grobbee DE, MacMahon S, Chalmers J. Lowering blood pressure reduces renal events in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(4):883-892.
103.Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Woodward M, Billot L, Harrap S, Poulter N, Marre M, Cooper M, Glasziou P, Grobbee DE, Hamet P, Heller S, Liu LS, Mancia G, Mogensen CE, Pan CY, Rodgers A, Williams B. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;370(9590):829-840.
104.Eklind-Cervenka M, Benson L, Dahlstrom U, Edner M, Rosenqvist M, Lund LH. Association of candesartan vs losartan with all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. Jama. 2011;305(2):175-182.
105.Hudson M, Humphries K, Tu JV, Behlouli H, Sheppard R, Pilote L. Angiotensin II receptor blockers for the treatment of heart failure: a class effect? Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27(4):526-534.
106.Desai RJ, Ashton CM, Deswal A, Morgan RO, Mehta HB, Chen H, Aparasu RR, Johnson ML. Comparative effectiveness of individual angiotensin receptor blockers on risk of mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012;21(3):233-240.
107.Antoniou T, Camacho X, Yao Z, Gomes T, Juurlink DN, Mamdani MM. Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-receptor blockers for preventing macrovascular disease in patients with diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Cmaj. 2013;185(12):1035-1041.
108.Scheid DC, McCarthy LH, Lawler FH, Hamm RM, Reilly KE. Screening for microalbuminuria to prevent nephropathy in patients with diabetes: a systematic review of the evidence. J Fam Pract. 2001;50(8):661-668.
109.Hutchison AS, Paterson KR. Collecting urine for microalbumin assay. Diabet Med. 1988;5(6):527-532.
110.Ismail-Beigi F, Craven TE, O''Connor PJ, Karl D, Calles-Escandon J, Hramiak I, Genuth S, Cushman WC, Gerstein HC, Probstfield JL, Katz L, Schubart U. Combined intensive blood pressure and glycemic control does not produce an additive benefit on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients. Kidney Int. 2012;81(6):586-594.
111.Chaturvedi N, Porta M, Klein R, Orchard T, Fuller J, Parving HH, Bilous R, Sjolie AK. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet. 2008;372(9647):1394-1402.
112.Sjolie AK, Klein R, Porta M, Orchard T, Fuller J, Parving HH, Bilous R, Chaturvedi N. Effect of candesartan on progression and regression of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes (DIRECT-Protect 2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9647):1385-1393.
113.Abbate M, Zoja C, Rottoli D, Corna D, Perico N, Bertani T, Remuzzi G. Antiproteinuric therapy while preventing the abnormal protein traffic in proximal tubule abrogates protein- and complement-dependent interstitial inflammation in experimental renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10(4):804-813.
114.Fogari R, Preti P, Zoppi A, Rinaldi A, Corradi L, Pasotti C, Poletti L, Marasi G, Derosa G, Mugellini A, Voglini C, Lazzari P. Effects of amlodipine fosinopril combination on microalbuminuria in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15(12):1042-1049.
115.Ram CV. Reappraisal of role of angiotensin receptor blockers in cardiovascular protection. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011;7:315-319.
116.Levy BI. Can angiotensin II type 2 receptors have deleterious effects in cardiovascular disease? Implications for therapeutic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Circulation. 2004;109(1):8-13.
117.Strauss MH, Hall AS. Angiotensin receptor blockers may increase risk of myocardial infarction: unraveling the ARB-MI paradox. Circulation. 2006;114(8):838-854.
118.Tsuyuki RT, McDonald MA. Angiotensin receptor blockers do not increase risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2006;114(8):855-860.
119.Orth SR, Nobiling R, Bonisch S, Ritz E. Inhibitory effect of calcium channel blockers on human mesangial cell growth: evidence for actions independent of L-type Ca2+ channels. Kidney Int. 1996;49(3):868-879.
120.Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M. Effects of calcium antagonists on renal hemodynamics. Am J Physiol. 1985;249(5 Pt 2):F619-629.
121.Jamerson KA, Bakris GL, Wun CC, Dahlof B, Lefkowitz M, Manfreda S, Pitt B, Velazquez EJ, Weber MA. Rationale and design of the avoiding cardiovascular events through combination therapy in patients living with systolic hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial: the first randomized controlled trial to compare the clinical outcome effects of first-line combination therapies in hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17(9):793-801.
122.Weber MA, Bakris GL, Jamerson K, Weir M, Kjeldsen SE, Devereux RB, Velazquez EJ, Dahlof B, Kelly RY, Hua TA, Hester A, Pitt B. Cardiovascular events during differing hypertension therapies in patients with diabetes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(1):77-85.
123.Lv Y, Zou Z, Chen GM, Jia HX, Zhong J, Fang WW. Amlodipine and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor combination versus amlodipine monotherapy in hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Blood Press Monit. 2010;15(4):195-204.
124.Balamuthusamy S, Molnar J, Adigopula S, Arora R. Comparative analysis of beta-blockers with other antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Ther. 2009;16(2):133-142.
125.Wiysonge CS, Bradley H, Mayosi BM, Maroney R, Mbewu A, Opie LH, Volmink J. Beta-blockers for hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(1):CD002003.
126.Cutler JA, Davis BR. Thiazide-type diuretics and beta-adrenergic blockers as first-line drug treatments for hypertension. Circulation. 2008;117(20):2691-2704; discussion 2705.
127.Lindholm LH, Carlberg B, Samuelsson O. Should beta blockers remain first choice in the treatment of primary hypertension? A meta-analysis. Lancet. 2005;366(9496):1545-1553.
128.Carlberg B, Samuelsson O, Lindholm LH. Atenolol in hypertension: is it a wise choice? Lancet. 2004;364(9446):1684-1689.
129.Klingbeil AU, Schneider M, Martus P, Messerli FH, Schmieder RE. A meta-analysis of the effects of treatment on left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Am J Med. 2003;115(1):41-46.
130.Wright JM, Musini VM. First-line drugs for hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(3):CD001841.
131.Psaty BM, Lumley T, Furberg CD, Schellenbaum G, Pahor M, Alderman MH, Weiss NS. Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289(19):2534-2544.
132.Barnett AH, Bain SC, Bouter P, Karlberg B, Madsbad S, Jervell J, Mustonen J. Angiotensin-receptor blockade versus converting-enzyme inhibition in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(19):1952-1961.
133.Long DA, Price KL, Herrera-Acosta J, Johnson RJ. How does angiotensin II cause renal injury? Hypertension. 2004;43(4):722-723.
134.Burnier M, Brunner HR. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Lancet. 2000;355(9204):637-645.
135.Teo K, Yusuf S, Sleight P, Anderson C, Mookadam F, Ramos B, Hilbrich L, Pogue J, Schumacher H. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of 2 large, simple, randomized trials evaluating telmisartan, ramipril, and their combination in high-risk patients: the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND) trials. Am Heart J. 2004;148(1):52-61.
136.Morris SD, Yellon DM. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors potentiate preconditioning through bradykinin B2 receptor activation in human heart. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29(7):1599-1606.
137.Kintsurashvili E, Duka A, Ignjacev I, Pattakos G, Gavras I, Gavras H. Age-related changes of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in rat heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289(1):H202-205.
138.Berl T, Hunsicker LG, Lewis JB, Pfeffer MA, Porush JG, Rouleau JL, Drury PL, Esmatjes E, Hricik D, Parikh CR, Raz I, Vanhille P, Wiegmann TB, Wolfe BM, Locatelli F, Goldhaber SZ, Lewis EJ. Cardiovascular outcomes in the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(7):542-549.
139.Imai E, Chan JC, Ito S, Yamasaki T, Kobayashi F, Haneda M, Makino H. Effects of olmesartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Diabetologia. 2011;54(12):2978-2986.
140.Bangalore S, Kumar S, Wetterslev J, Messerli FH. Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of myocardial infarction: meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of 147 020 patients from randomised trials. Bmj. 2011;342:d2234.
141.Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, Han F, Li X, He X, Li Q, Chen J. Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Deaths, and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014.
142.Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, Massie BM, Freis ED, Kochar MS, Hamburger RJ, Fye C, Lakshman R, Gottdiener J, et al. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(13):914-921.
143.Sica DA, Carter B, Cushman W, Hamm L. Thiazide and loop diuretics. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011;13(9):639-643.
144.Segura J, Ruilope LM. A review of the benefits of early treatment initiation with single-pill combinations of telmisartan with amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2013;9:521-528.
145.Lin CC, Lai MS, Syu CY, Chang SC, Tseng FY. Accuracy of diabetes diagnosis in health insurance claims data in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. 2005;104(3):157-163.
146.Lai MN, Lai JN, Chen PC, Hsieh SC, Hu FC, Wang JD. Risks of kidney failure associated with consumption of herbal products containing Mu Tong or Fangchi: a population-based case-control study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(3):507-518.
147.Ng YY, Hung YN, Wu SC, Ko PJ, Hwang SM. Progression in comorbidity before hemodialysis initiation is a valuable predictor of survival in incident patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013;28(4):1005-1012.
148.Chang CH, Lin JW, Wu LC, Lai MS, Chuang LM. Oral insulin secretagogues, insulin, and cancer risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(7):E1170-1175.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊