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研究生:李姿誼
研究生(外文):Tzu-I Lee
論文名稱:國小孩童書寫易讀性相關因子探討
論文名稱(外文):Relevant Factors of Handwriting Legibility in Elementary School Children
指導教授:王湉妮王湉妮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tien-Ni Wang
口試委員:陳顥齡張韶霞
口試委員(外文):Hao-Ling ChenShao-Hsia Chang
口試日期:2014-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職能治療研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:易讀性預測因子國小學童書寫表現電腦化書寫評估工具
外文關鍵詞:legibilitypredictorsprimary school childrenhandwriting performancecomputerized handwriting programs
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背景與目的:
目前已有許多研究探討學童書寫易讀性的預測因子。然而,這些研究卻呈現不一致的結果,推論可能原因為過去研究欠缺考量在不同年齡層之書寫易讀性預測因子可能不同。此外,為了克服目前評估書寫易讀性的限制,本篇研究發展了新的電腦化評估工具Chinese Legibility Assessment (CLA)。因此,本篇研究主要目的有二,其一為初步探討CLA之效度,其二為探討在不同年齡層書寫易讀性預測因子的改變。

方法:
此研究使用方便樣本的方式收案,共有118為學童(50位男生、68位女生)參與本研究。收案條件為(1)小學一年級至六年級(6-13歲);排除條件為(1)學童有特殊診斷,如自閉症、腦性麻痺等等(2)智力商數小於70。本篇將使用CLA來評量學童的書寫易讀性。此外,本篇所納入的預測因子包含:視知覺、手眼協調、視動整合以及運動學和力學參數。視知覺、手眼協調以及視動整合等能力會使用拜瑞-布坦尼卡視覺-動作統整發展測驗及其補充測驗來評估。

結果:
結果顯示CLA有中到強度的聚合效度(r=.632). 逐步迴歸法結果顯示國小一年級學童的書寫易讀性預測因子為視動整合;國小二年級學童的易讀性預測因子為筆尖施力以及手眼協調;國小五、六年級學童的預測因子為每筆劃書寫速度。然而,我們並未在本篇研究中發現國小三、四年級學童的書寫易讀性預測因子。

結論:
此篇研究結果顯示CLA有適當的效度。此外,也發現在不同年齡層有不同的書寫易讀性預測因子。根據此篇研究結果,我們建議在考量孩童書寫易讀性時,應關注低年級孩童的視動整合、手眼協調以及寫字力量等能力,而對於高年級孩童,我們則建議關注運動學相關的參數。


Background and Purpose:
Several studies have been done in investigating the predictors of handwriting legibility. However, inconsistent results were reported due to the lack of consideration that predictors of legibility may vary in different age groups. To overcome the current limitation in evaluating legibility, a new program, called Chinese Legibility Assessment (CLA) was proposed. In conclusion, the major purposes of this research project were to test the validity of the proposed computer-based software for measuring legibility and to examine the determinant predictors for legibility of children in various age groups.

Method:
Participants were selected using convenience sampling methods. A total of 118 children (50 boys and 68 girls) participated in this study. The inclusion criteria were children who were elementary school students and aged between 6 and 13 years. The exclusion criteria were children with (1) specific diagnosis, such as cerebral palsy or autism reported by parents or teachers and (2) Intelligence Quotient (IQ) <70. Children’s handwriting legibility was measured by the CLA, a computerized legibility assessment program. Potential predictors were visual perception (VP), eye-hand coordination (EHC), visual motor integration (VMI) as well as kinematic and kinetic parameters. VP, EHC and VMI were tested by Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and its supplementary tests.

Results:
The results showed that the convergent validity of CLA was moderate to strong (r=.632). Stepwise multiple regression models showed that the predictor of legibility in grade one was VMI. For grade 2, EHC and writing force were the significant predictors. For grade five and six, stroke velocity was the only significant predictor. However, no predictor was found in grade 3 and 4.

Conclusion:
The study results showed that CLA has adequate validity and also reported that the predictors of legibility varied in different age groups According to our results, it was suggested to focus more on VMI, EHC and writing force at junior grade whereas kinematic parameters played an important role on influencing children’s handwriting quality at senior grade.


Chapter1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Evaluation of Legibility 2
1.3 Relevant Factors of Legibility 4
1.4 Propose and Hypotheses of the Study 7
Chapter2 Methods 8
2.1 Participants 8
2.2 Outcome Measures 9
2.2.1 Computerized Legibility Assessment 9
2.2.2 Visual Perception, Eye-Hand Coordination and Visual Motor Integration 11
2.2.3 Kinetic and Kinematic Analysis 12
2.3 Procedures 14
2.4 Data Analysis 14
2.4.1 Validity of CLA 14
2.4.2 Predictors of Handwriting Legibility 15
Chapter3 Results 16
3.1 Validity of CLA 16
3.1.1 Convergent validity 16
3.1.2 Age Differentiation 16
3.2 Determinant Factors of Handwriting Legibility 17
3.2.1 Correlation between Grade and Handwriting Related Variables 17
3.2.2 Correlation between Handwriting Legibility and Test Variables 17
3.2.3 Predictors of Handwriting Legibility 18
Chapter4 Discussion 20
4.1 Validity of CLA 20
4.2 Determinant Factors of Handwriting Legibility 22
4.2.1 Relationship between Grade and Handwriting Related Variables 22
4.2.2 Predictors of Handwriting Legibility 23
4.3 Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research 27
Chapter5 Conclusion 28
REFERENCES 29


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