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研究生:Lamin L. Kujabi
研究生(外文):Lamin L. Kujabi
論文名稱:Multi-Channel Multi-Interface Routing in Cognitive Radio Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
論文名稱(外文):Multi-Channel Multi-Interface Routing in Cognitive Radio Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
指導教授:Shi-Jinn Horng
指導教授(外文):Shi-Jinn Horng
口試委員:Shi-Jinn Horng
口試委員(外文):Shi-Jinn Horng
口試日期:2014-01-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:Multi-channelMulti-interfacewireless NetworksAd hoc NetworkRoutingCognitive NetworkPerformance.
外文關鍵詞:Multi-channelMulti-interfacewireless NetworksAd hoc NetworkRoutingCognitive NetworkPerformance.
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Abstract
With the advance and rapid growth in electronic devices, the demand for wireless resource becomes inevitable. To help reduce the burden, wireless communication must operate in multi-channels multi-interface networks mode. Due to the limitation of spectrum available for wireless devices to operate over multiple channels, the idea of using cognitive radio networks which operate over multiple channels was introduced.
The main objective of this master thesis is to broadcast a Hello packet over Multi-channel Multi-interface Cognitive Radio wireless Network using NS-2 network simulator was been use to analyze the performance of this type of networks. We evaluate the performance of the WCETT and AODV routing protocol by comparing the two.
Cognitive radio is a technology that is aims to improve the spectrum resource utilization and allows a cognitive radio transceiver to detect and sense spectrum holes without causing interference to the primary users (PUs). This new technology is a promising solution to improve the spectrum utilization. Routing in CRN is a challenging task due to the diversity in the available channels. In this paper, Cognitive radio ad hoc network (CRAHN) simulation environment is used with AODV and WCETT routing protocols used to address the problem of efficient route selection between the source and destination. The performance of AODV with WCETT protocol is discussed on basis on average throughput, average end to end delay, and packet lost. The simulation result shows that performance of WCETT is better than the AODV because of its better route selection strategy in CRAHN. Finally we will evaluate the parameters obtain during the simulation by observing their graphs and then discuss over them.
Abstract
With the advance and rapid growth in electronic devices, the demand for wireless resource becomes inevitable. To help reduce the burden, wireless communication must operate in multi-channels multi-interface networks mode. Due to the limitation of spectrum available for wireless devices to operate over multiple channels, the idea of using cognitive radio networks which operate over multiple channels was introduced.
The main objective of this master thesis is to broadcast a Hello packet over Multi-channel Multi-interface Cognitive Radio wireless Network using NS-2 network simulator was been use to analyze the performance of this type of networks. We evaluate the performance of the WCETT and AODV routing protocol by comparing the two.
Cognitive radio is a technology that is aims to improve the spectrum resource utilization and allows a cognitive radio transceiver to detect and sense spectrum holes without causing interference to the primary users (PUs). This new technology is a promising solution to improve the spectrum utilization. Routing in CRN is a challenging task due to the diversity in the available channels. In this paper, Cognitive radio ad hoc network (CRAHN) simulation environment is used with AODV and WCETT routing protocols used to address the problem of efficient route selection between the source and destination. The performance of AODV with WCETT protocol is discussed on basis on average throughput, average end to end delay, and packet lost. The simulation result shows that performance of WCETT is better than the AODV because of its better route selection strategy in CRAHN. Finally we will evaluate the parameters obtain during the simulation by observing their graphs and then discuss over them.
List of Contents
Abstract......................................................................................................ii
Declaration.................................................................................................iii
Acknowledgment...................................................................................... iv
List of contents..........................................................................................v
List of Acronyms…………………………………………………………vii
List of Figures...........................................................................................ix
List of Tables.............................................................................................x
Chapter 1: Introductions..........................................................................1
1.1 Motivation.............................................................................................4
1.2 Objectives.............................................................................................5
1.3 Related Work.......................................................................................6
1.4 Thesis Scope.........................................................................................7
Chapter 2: Background...........................................................................8
2.1 Wireless ad-hoc Networks....................................................................8
2.1.1 Multiple Channel and multiple interface................................9
2.1.2 Advantages and Limitations of Ad-hoc Network..................12
2.1.3 Wireless Ad-hoc routing........................................................13
2.2 Cognitive Radio Operations..................................................................16
2.2.1 Cognitive Radio.....................................................................16
2.2.2 Cognitive Radio network Architecture..................................17
2.2.2.1 Primary Network.....................................................17
2.2.3 Design Overview for CR Routing.........................................19
Chapter 3: Description of Routing..........................................................22
3.1 Cognitive Ad-hoc on Demand Distance vector....................................22
3.2 Expected Transmission Count ………………………………………..26
3.3 Expected Transmission Time ………………………………………..27
3.4 WCETT Cognitive Radio Routing Protocol........................................27
3.4.1 Route Discovery Process........................................................34
Chapter 4: Multiple Interface Support in NS-2.....................................37
4.1 An Overview of Ns-2 …………………………..................................37
4.1.1 Programming Language in Ns-2 ………………...................38
4.2 Broadcasting of Packet over Multiple Interfaces.................................41
Chapter 5: Simulation and performance Evaluation............................44
5.1 Simulator Parameters Setup..................................................................44
5.2 Average End-to-End Throughput.........................................................46
5.3 Average End-to-End Delay..................................................................47
5.4 Packet Loss..........................................................................................49
Chapter 6: Conclusion.............................................................................51
Reference..................................................................................................52
References
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[2] G. Cheng, W.L., Y. Li, & W. Cheng, “Control Channel Based MACLayer Configuration, Routing and Situation Awareness for Cognitive, Radio Networks.” IEEE, 2007.
[3] Stergios Stotas, A., “Enhancing the Capacity of Spectrum Sharing Cognitive Radio Networks”. 2011.
[4] Commission, F.C., “Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FCC 04-113): Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands.” 2004.
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[10] Richard Draves, J.P., and Brian Zill, “Routing in Multi- Radio, Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks.” ACM Mobicom, 2004.
[11] M. E. M. Campista, P.M.E., I. M. Moraes, L. H. M. Costa, O. C. M. Duarte, D. G. Passos, C. V. N. de Albuquerque, D. C. M. Saade, and M. G. Rubinstein, “Routing Metrics and Protocols for Wireless Mesh Networks.” IEEE, 2008.
[12] Khetrapal, A., “Routing Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Classification and Qualitative/Quantitative Analysis.” ICWN, 2006.
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[14] Ruchi Rai, V.T.a.S.K., “Comparison of Routing Protocol AODV and WCETT in Cognitive Radio Network.” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 2013.
[15] P, P.K.T., “An On-demand Routing Technique for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network.” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 2013.
[16] Nancy YanethGelvez Garcia, D.A.L.S., “Evaluation of Protocol Applied to Network Routing WCETT Cognitive Radio.” 2012.
[17] S.Senthuran, A.A.a.O.D., “Throughput Analysis of Opportunistic Access Statergies in Cognitive Radio Networks.” IEEE Tran on wireless communication, 2012.
[18] Lars Berlemann, G.D., Klaus Moessner and Jim Hoffmeyer, “Cognitive Radio and Management of Spectrum and Radio Resources in Reconfigurable Networks.” 2005.
[19] HuseyinArslan, T.a., “Survey of Spectrum Sensing Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Applications.” IEEE communication and surveys and tutorials, 2009.
[20] Ian F. Akyildiz, W.-Y.L., Mehmet C.Vuran, Shantidev Mohanty,, “NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks:A survey. Elsevier Computer Networks,” 2006.
[21] Mansi Subhedar, G.B., “Spectrum Sensing Techniques in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Survey.” IEEE, 2011.
[22] Ying – Chang Liang, K.C.C., Geoffrey Ye Li, and Petri Mahonen, “Cognitive Radio Networking and Communications: An Overview.” Trans on vehicular tech, 2011.
[23] Ho Ting Cheng, W., “Simple Channel Sensing Order in Cognitive Radio Networks.”IEEE journals, 2011.
[24] Huang, J.W.Y., “A Cross-Layer Design of Channel Assignment and Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks.” 2010.
[25] S. Basagni, M.C., S. Giordano, and I. Stojmenovic, , “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking.” 2004.
[26 ] Marco Di Felic, K.R.C., Wooseong Kim, Andreas Kassler & Luciano Bononi, “End-to-end protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: An evaluation stud,” in Elsevier, 2010.
[27] K. Fall, K.V., “Ns Notes and Documentation.” http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/. the VINT Project UC Berkeley, 2005.
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[29] Rehmani, Z.A.K.a.M.H., “A Tutorial on Broadcasting Packetsover Multiple-Channelsina Multi-Inferface Network Setting in NS-2.” 2010.
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