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研究生:鄭筠
研究生(外文):Yun Cheng
論文名稱:朗讀故事搭配生字註釋對國小學童字彙習得之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Reading Aloud Using Various Types of Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Among Taiwanese EFL Children
指導教授:李思穎李思穎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sy-ying Lee
口試委員:李思穎
口試委員(外文):Sy-ying Lee
口試日期:2014-01-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:朗讀說故事聽故事注釋字彙習得
外文關鍵詞:Reading aloudStorytellingListening to storiesGlossIncidental Vocabulary Acquisition
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本研究旨在探討以英語做為第二外語的臺灣兒童在朗讀故事的過程中,不同形式的生字注釋對兒童字彙習得的影響。以往的研究顯示,一邊閱讀一邊聽故事能夠幫助兒童字彙習得;而對於英語做為第二外語的兒童,聽故事對英語程度較高者和英語程度較低者同樣有效。然而,由於缺乏足夠的字彙量,對第二外語學習者而言,閱讀是件困難的事。研究記錄發現,使用注釋能夠幫助解決此問題。
本研究以一百一十四名四年級的台灣學童為研究參與對象,他們被隨機分配到四組之中,分別為:無注釋組,中文注釋組,圖片注釋組以及中文加圖片注釋組。選定一本繪本故事書為測試材料用來講故事,將故事書中的19個生字列入字彙測試。學生在聽故事的前一周進行字彙前測,聽完故事後即時字彙後測,一周後又給予延遲字彙後測,然後對比衡量四個組的生字習得成效。
結果顯示,在聽完故事的即時字彙後測中,所有兒童的字彙量均有顯著提高,其中以中文加圖片注釋組的表現最佳;在之後的延遲字彙後測中,各組的字彙量均有所下降;而且各組並無顯著差異。這項研究顯示,台灣學童能夠透過聽故事和閱讀且不用注釋輔助獲取新的字彙知識。如果注釋形式不是字彙習得的關鍵,朗讀故事者和故事書的選材應該是最大的關鍵。研究者對理論意義和教學建議都進行了探討。當然,此研究結果需要經過更多論證。
This study aimed to examine the effects of different types of glosses during storytelling on Taiwanese EFL children’s incidental vocabulary acquisition. Previous studies have shown that reading (following the text) while listening to stories helps children acquire vocabulary incidentally; and listening to stories alone can be as effective for low-proficient ESL children as it is for their higher-proficient counterparts. However, reading itself can be difficult for L2 learners due to the lack of sufficient vocabulary. To solve this problem, the use of glosses has been found helpful in documented research. Yet, few studies have been conducted with school pupils whose varied abilities often cause great challenges in teaching.
One hundred and fourteen (114) fourth graders were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: No gloss, L1 gloss, pictorial gloss, and L1 with pictorial gloss. A picture storybook was selected for storytelling and 19 words were included in the vocabulary test. Students took a pre-test one week prior to the study and a post-test immediately after listening to the story. One delayed post-test was then administered one week later to measure and compare the vocabulary retention performance among the four groups.
The ANOVA results showed that all children improved significantly on the immediate post-test with the L1 + pictorial group performing the best. All groups regressed on the delayed test; however, no difference was found among groups in the retention test. This study suggests that young EFL learners are able to acquire new words by listening to and reading a story without the extra support of a picture and/or a gloss. If the gloss type was not the key to vocabulary acquisition, then the role of storytellers and materials deserves a greater credit. Theoretical implications and pedagogical suggestions were discussed. This result, of course, needs to be confirmed with a variety of stories: It may be that it holds only for stories that supply a rich context and take advantage of students' background knowledge.
中文摘要........................................................................................................................I
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................... II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................................... III
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... V
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................VIII
LIST OF FIGURES...................................................................................................IX
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….....1
1.1 Background and Motivation…………………………………………….…………1
1.2. Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………...7
1.3. Definition of Key Terms……………………………………………………….....8
1.4. Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………...…………………10
2.1 The Input Hypothesis………………………………...…………………………..10
2.2 Importance of Reading Aloud………………………..………………………..14
2.2.1 Teacher's Role ……………………………………………………………15
2.2.2 Children’s Attitude and Motivation………………………………………16
2.3 Reading and Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition………………………………..18
2.4 Reading Aloud and Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition………………...………..21
2.5 Benefits of Glosses…………………………………………………………….…23
2.5.1 Effects of Glosses on Reading Comprehension…………………………..24
2.5.2 Effects of Glosses on Vocabulary Acquisition………………………...….28
2.6 Filling the Gap……………………………………………………………………31
2.7 Research Questions……………………………………………………………....31
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY32
3.1. Pilot Study……………………………………………………………………….32
3.1.1 Materials…………………………………………………………………..33
3.1.1.1 Selection of the Storybook………………………………………...33
3.1.1.2 Section of Target Words…………………………………………...34
3.1.2 Instrument…………………………………………………………………35
3.1.2.1 Vocabulary Test…………………………………………………...35
3.1.3 Results…………………………………………………………………….36
3.2 Main Study……………………………………………………………………….37
3.2.1 Participants………………………………………………………………..37
3.2.2 Instrument…………………………………………………………………39
3.2.2.1 Questionnaire……………………………………………………...39
3.2.3 Procedures………………………………………………………………...39
3.2.4 Data Analyses……………………………………………………………..42
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………………………...43
4.1 Performance on Vocabulary Pre-test…………………………………………….43
4.2 Performance on Immediate Vocabulary Post-test……………………………….44
4.3 Performance on Delayed Vocabulary Post-test…………………………………45
4.4 Comparison of the Three Tests…………………………………………………46
4.5 Observation Results………………………………………………………………48
4.6 Questionnaire Results……………………………………………………………51
4.7 Discussion………………………………………………………………………..53
4.7.1 Effects of Reading Aloud on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition….……...53
4.7.2 Effects of Gloss Types on the Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition……….54
4.7.3 Influence of Gloss Types on Vocabulary Retention…………………..…..56
4.7.4 Opportunities for Taiwanese EFL Children to Listen to Stories……….…58
4.7.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………...59
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLSUIONS AND IMPLICATIONS………………………..60
5.1 Summary…………………………………………………………………………60
5.2 Implications………………………………………………………………………61
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research………………………………..63
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….65
APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………………..75
APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………………..77
APPENDIX C………………………………………………………………………..84
APPENDIX D..............................................................................................................85
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