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研究生:邱佳芸
研究生(外文):Chiu, Chia-Yun
論文名稱:記憶/遺忘:《接骨師的女兒》中的女性身分建構
論文名稱(外文):Remembering/Forgetting:Female Identity Construction in Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter
指導教授:開一心開一心引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kai, I-Hsin
口試委員:丁善雄林熒嬌
口試委員(外文):Ting, Shan-HsiungLin, Ying-Chiao
口試日期:2013-12-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:記憶遺忘女性身分
外文關鍵詞:RememberingForgettingFemale Identity
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摘要
「遺忘」,在一般人的眼中被視為一種記憶的不足或缺陷。舉凡像是我們時常聽到的「忘了帶鑰匙,」「忘了寫作業」或是「忘了交代的事」等等。用一般社會大眾的觀點來看,這毫無疑問的是種缺失或是錯誤。相反的來說,「記憶」則有著完全不同的解讀。它象徵著頭腦清楚、聰明,是一項「優點。」然而,若以哲學的角度來重新審視我們的生命,這將會有所不同。
人的生命是連續的過程,且持續進行的狀態;它由我們的過去、現在以及未來不斷的串連起來,形塑了「我」。因此人們通常在形塑一個自己想要呈現給他人的「我」的過程中,不停的在「遺忘」與「記憶」兩者之間取捨、做選擇,不停的在平衡自己所選擇的「刻意記憶」(“will to remember”) 以及「刻意忘懷」 ( “will to forget” );也就是尼采所說的「生命形式藝術歷程」(“art life style” of history)。藝術結合「遺忘」與「記憶」兩者並為我們創造更美好的生命。
因此,本文將從當代華美作家譚恩美的小說《接骨師的女兒》進行文本分析,本文分為四章,第一章解釋研究動機以及討論原本根深蒂固在人們對於記憶與遺忘的世俗觀念與哲學角度有所不同之處。第二章中將解釋三波女性主義運動所探討的不同的概念並應用到譚恩美《接骨師的女兒》三位女主人翁所處的不同時空背景,同樣面對父權體制下遇到不同困境來做為參考以及證據的來源。第三章討論書中三位主角不同的角度出發來討論她們在不同的外在環境、不同時期以及因不同目的而形塑不同的「我」的過程:也就是不停的在取捨及平衡自己所選擇的「刻意記憶」 (“will to remember”)以及「刻意忘懷」( “will to forget” )的過程中,劉璐琳(LuLing)的遺忘/不復記憶反而為她帶來救贖,對照谷琉心(Precious Auntie)的無法遺忘/記憶帶來生命中不可逆轉的悲劇,以及楊如意(Ruth)觀照其母與外婆的生命經驗為自己帶來改變。女性需先拋開既定的父權思維所界定的社會角色才得以追求自我,其中劉璐琳(LuLing)的遺忘正是一種無意間獲致的手段。三代不同時空中的兩段破碎母女關係,得以修補並縫合。第四章總結此篇論文的重點,記憶與遺忘之間的關連皆跳脫一般人的想法,是福、抑是禍,這兩者之間所帶給人們的遠遠超過其字面上的意義,記憶可能牽扯著悲慟的過去;遺忘可能帶來新的未來。書中的主角如何在記憶與遺忘,過去與未來中母女關係能夠重新修復並相互了解,在雙重文化的處境之下重新建構自我,最後因遺忘而原諒,從過去的憤怒及恐懼中得到解放,並獲得重生。


Abstract

“Forgetting” has been deemed as a kind of insufficiency or defect of our memory. It happens all the time in our daily life, such as “forgetting the keys,” “forgetting doing homework,” or “forgetting fulfilling promises.” If we take it for granted, it is no doubt a kind of loss or an error. On the other hand, "memory" has a completely different connotation. It symbolizes being not only sober-minded but also intelligent, and is considered a “merit.” However, if we look at it from a philosophical perspective and re-examine lives, things may be a little different. Nietzsche once said, “There could be no happiness, no serenity, no hope, no pride, no present without forgetfulness.” Nietzsche seemed to regard forgetting as an indispensable part of human life.
The thesis aims to examine the significance of remembering and forgetting during the process of forming one’s identity at different life stages and for different purposes. In Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter, the three protagonists inevitably struggle between the past and the present and are haunted by memories but free themselves through forgetting. Remembering and forgetting indeed play important roles in their lives.
Divided into four chapters, the thesis starts with an introduction discussing the distinctions between traditional thinking and interpretation of remembering and forgetting. Following it are stories pertaining to remembering and forgetting. In Chapter Two, the thesis presents a literature review of the theories of different concepts of the first, second and the third stages of Feminism Movements, and applying these concepts to the three protagonists of the novel; those of whose female subjectivity have all established under the patriarchal system. This review is going to be a supportive framework upon my reading and analyzing Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter. Chapter Three reexamines the interrelationships between remembering and forgetting of the three female characters in the novel. Chapter Four is the conclusion that summarizes the previous three chapters and concludes that the function of memories should be more powerful than remembering, the past or the present. The relationship between remembering and forgetting should be viewed from a different perspective. Remembering unhappy or even traumatic past that brings nothing but remorse or sadness may be detrimental to one’s mental or psychological health, whereas forgetting the past may bring new and promising future. Nothing is ever certain. In The Bonesetter’s Daughter, forgetting to remember and remember to forget may be deemed as a way of reconstruction the three female characters’ self-identity in a dual-culture situation. In the end, LuLing got rid of her unhappy past because of her dementia disease. The inevitable forgetting turned out to lead both the mother and the daughter to redemption, relief, and ultimately liberation.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………...iii
Preface………………………………………………………………………………...iv
English Abstract……………………………………………………………………...vii
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………………ix
Chapter 1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Remembering and Forgetting in The Bonesetter’s Daughter………………..1
1.2 Stories of Remembering – To Remember or Not to Remember, That is the Question……….2
1.3 Stories of Forgetting – To Forget or Not to Forget, That is the Question….7
1.4 Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter……………………………………..9
1.5 The Organization of the Thesis……………………………………………12
Chapter 2 Literature Review…………………………………………………………14
2.1 Female Subjectivity under the Patriarchal System………………………....14
2.2 Historical Context of the Novel…………………………………………….15
2.3 General Introduction to the First Feminism Movement……………………16
2.4 General Introduction to the Second Feminism Movement…………………20
2.5 General Introduction to the Third Feminism Movement………………...…24
2.6 Precious Auntie: Resisting Patriarchal Power………………………………26
2.7 LuLing: Remembering Irretrievable Memories…………………………….29
2.8 Ruth: Reshaping Female Identity…………………………………………...32
Chapter 3 Remembering and Forgetting in Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter…35
3.1 Precious Auntie’s Remembering Ends Up in Tragedy……………………...37
3.2 LuLing’s Remembering and Forgetting…………………………………….41
3.3 Ruth and LuLing’s “Will to Remember” vs. “Will to Forget”……………..54
Chapter 4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………..66
Works Cited………………………………………………………………………….72

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