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研究生:許誌娟
研究生(外文):Chih-Chuan Hsu
論文名稱:分支酵素與冷凍解凍處理及脂肪酸添加山藥澱粉之抗性澱粉含量及其理化性質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Pullulanase Debranching Freeze-thaw Treatments and Fatty Acid on the Resistant Starch Content and the Physicochemical Properties of Yam Starches
指導教授:王俊權王俊權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiun-Chuang R. Wang
口試委員:柯文慶江伯源
口試委員(外文):Wen-Ching KoPo-Yuan Chiang
口試日期:2014-06-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:山藥澱粉抗性澱粉去分支酶脂肪酸冷凍-解凍處理理化 特性升糖指數
外文關鍵詞:Yam starchResistant starchPullulanaseFatty acidFreezing- thawing treatmentPhysicochemical propertiesGlycemic index
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抗性澱粉(resisitant starch)是指澱粉在體內試驗對α-amylase及pullulanase的分解具有抗性,不為小腸所吸收的澱粉。抗性澱粉不僅可供為膳食纖維,降低飯後血糖,尚可提供細菌在大腸內進行發酵產生短鏈脂肪酸,可改善結腸對抗有毒物質,同時可降低膽酸及膽固醇含量。本研究主要以兩種山藥澱粉(TNG1 & TNG2)經酵素水解及脂肪酸的添加及冷凍-解凍處理,探討抗性澱粉含量以及理化性質之變化。結果顯示未糊化之山藥澱粉之直鏈澱粉含量約為33-36%,而加熱糊化後其直鏈澱粉含量降低約7.87~9.9%,進一步將煮熟後的山藥澱粉經過支鏈澱粉酶(pullunanase)水解後,隨著酵素濃度的增加以及時間的延長,其直鏈澱粉含量有增加的趨勢,從原本的33~36%,上升至約48~65%。澱粉經酵素水解及冷凍-解凍處理後,分子量大小與天然澱粉(TNG1 & TNG2)相比較呈現降低。酵素水解及添加脂肪再以冷凍-解凍處理,能有效減緩消化率並提升其抗性澱粉含量。此外,此處理方式亦可提高澱粉的糊化溫度(To、Tp、Tc)及降低糊化熱焓值。山藥澱粉的成糊溫度隨著酵素活性的增加而延後,但尖峰黏度與最終黏度以及黏度回升值均呈現下滑的趨勢。以X-ray繞射分析發現經酵素水解及添加脂肪酸並冷凍-解凍處理之山藥澱粉的相對結晶度均增加,且結晶型態皆由B-type轉變為C+V-type。進一步分析經處理後的澱粉之升糖指數發現,隨著酵素濃度的增加,升糖指數有降低的趨勢。
Resistant starch (RS) is defined as “the sum of starch resist toα-amylase and pullulanase degradation in vivo that are not absorbed in the small intestine of health individuals”. RS is not only recognized as dietary fiber to decrease the postprandial blood glucose level, but also fermented by microorganisms in the large bowel to produce short chain fatty acids to improve colonic resistance to toxic agents and to decrease the content of bile acids and total neutral sterols. The purposes of this study were to investigate the total RS content and the changes of physicochemical properties of yam starches as they were enzymatically hydrolyzed, following by fatty acid addition and freeze-thaw treatments. The results showed that the total amylose content of yam starches were identified in the ranges of 33-36%, then decreased to 7.9 – 9.9% after gelatinization. The content of amylose increased with enzyme activity, from 33-36% to 48-65%, as the gelatinized yam starches were debranchedby using pullulanase. The molecular weight and digestibility of yam starches significantly decreased but The RS content increased after hydrolysis of pullulanase and freeze-thaw treatments. The gelatinization temperature (To, Tp, Tc) increased but the gelatinization enthalpy decreased as yam starches were hydrolyzed by pullulanase and treated by fatty acids addition and freeze-thawing. In the pasting properties of yam starches, the pasting temperature increased with the increases of pullulanase activity, but the tendency of peak viscosity, final viscosity and setback viscosity of yam starch were decreased. The relative crystallinity of X-ray diffraction pattern of yam starches were increased after pullulanase hydrolysis, fatty acid addition and freeze-thaw treatments. The yam starches displayed the typical B-type pattern of tuber starch granules. However, the debranched and freeze-thawed treatments changed the diffraction patterns of native flour to display a mixture of B- and V-type diffraction pattern. The results also indicated the estimated glycemic index of yam starches significantly decreased with the increases of pullulanase activity.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
一、 前言 1
二、 文獻回顧 1
(一) 山藥 1
A. 山藥簡介 1
B. 山藥的組成分 4
(二) 澱粉(starch) 4
A. 直鏈澱粉(amylose)與支鏈澱粉(amylopectin) 4
B. 澱粉的顆粒結構 5
C. 山藥澱粉的特性 6
D. 澱粉的糊化 7
(三) 抗性澱粉(resistant starch, RS) 15
A. 簡介 15
B. 定義 15
C. 抗性澱粉的種類 16
D. 影響抗性澱粉的生成因素 19
E. 抗性澱粉的功能性質 23
(1) 增加短鏈脂肪酸(short chain fatty acid:SCFA) 23
(2) 降低腸道pH值 24
(3) 減少尿素及酚類化合物濃度 24
(4) 增加糞便排泄量 25
(5) 減少膽汁的二級代謝物產生 25
(6) 具增加益生菌數量 26
(7) 減少血液中葡萄糖含量及調控胰島素 26
(8) 控制體重 27
(四) 升糖指數(Glycemic index) 27
A. 定義 27
B. 測定方法 28
a. 體內試驗 28
b. 體外試驗 28
(五) 脂肪酸(fatty acid) 29
A. 簡介 29
B. 直鏈澱粉脂質複合物 29
三、 研究目的 33
四、 材料方法 34
(一) 實驗架構圖 34
(二) 原料 35
(三) 澱粉的分離 35
(四) 澱粉的處理方法 35
A. 酵素去分支處理與冷凍-解凍處理 35
B. 酵素去分支處理並添加脂肪酸與冷凍-解凍處理 36
(五) 直鏈澱粉含量 36
(六) 澱粉的分子量分佈 37
(七) 澱粉的消化率 37
(八) 抗性澱粉 39
(九) 澱粉的理化性質 41
A. 熱焓性質 41
B. 成糊特性 41
C. 微細結構 41
D. X-ray繞射分析圖譜 42
(十) 升糖指數估計值 42
(十一) 統計分析 43
五、 結果與討論 44
(一) 直鏈澱粉含量 44
(二) 澱粉分子量大小與分佈 46
(三) 快速及慢速消化澱粉含量 48
(四) 抗性澱粉含量 51
(五) 熱焓性質 54
(六) 成糊性質 58
(七) 微細結構 66
(八) 結晶型態 69
(九) 升糖指數 75
六、 結論 78
參考文獻 79 
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