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研究生:林怡葶
研究生(外文):LIN,YI-TING
論文名稱:超市連鎖業越庫營運模式外向配送規劃與永續效益之探討 – 以P公司為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Cross-docking Vehicle Routing Planning of a Supermarket Chain and its Sustainability Effects
指導教授:蘇雄義蘇雄義引用關係
指導教授(外文):SU,SHONG-IEE
口試委員:湯玲郎吳吉政
口試委員(外文):TANG,LING-LANGWU,JI-ZHENG
口試日期:2014-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:151
中文關鍵詞:越庫營運模式企業永續經營配送路線規劃地理圖座標掃描法溫室氣體
外文關鍵詞:Cross-docking operational modelBusiness sustainabilityDelivery route planningGeographical coordinate sweeping algorithmGreen House Gas (GHG)
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台灣超市業者的供應鏈物流結構,大多採庫存型中央倉儲配送模式。本研究的個案公司,在2011年以前仍然採欠缺效率的傳統多階層配銷模式,透過許多遍佈各地區的中小型代送經銷商倉庫,將供應商貨品配送到超市分店。但是經過數年的評估與規劃,個案公司做了重大供應鏈營運模式的轉型,在2012年3月至6月期間,陸續將北部和南部所有分店的配送,更新為供應鏈越庫營運模式,中部區域則仍繼續規劃轉型中。
各國政府和企業對於環境保護議題愈趨關注,希望降低溫室氣體排放量並尋找乾淨替代能源,以解決氣候暖化所帶來的環境生態問題。許多產業的供應鏈體系也致力於改造或更新,期望透過營運模式的更新或轉型,達到能源使用更有效率的目標,且能降低溫室氣體排放,為社會永續發展盡一份心力。
本研究乃植基於過去對個案公司2012年10月北區越庫物流園區服務274家分店的最大配送需求日配送作業路線規畫的研究,進一步增加同年10月份中間需求日及最小需求日的配送作業,進行深入的規畫分析研究,期透過分析結果來瞭解越庫營運模式核心配送作業如何做好規劃、其規劃特性為何及相關效益所在。同時,本研究亦從企業永續發展觀點,探討個案公司在越庫營運模式實施前後,配送作業對經濟面、環境面及社會面這幾個企業永續經營構面所帶來的變化及影響。
本研究使用植基於地理圖座標掃描法的路線規劃演算進行, 本研究使用植基於地理圖座標掃描法的路線規劃演算進行, 在考量實務要求及限制條件下,做出最佳配送路線的決策。路線規劃演算法 透過三個演算法則的設計,依序為「籠車合移」、「一車多趟」與「分店籠車拆併 」三個演算步驟 」三個演算步驟 ,逐步改善車輛數目、路線數目及相關配送績效指標。
原有配送路線規劃所得車輛裝載率最高僅到75%,多數低於此比率。演算分析顯示,在三法則演算後,除中間日下午配送時段平均裝載率為83%之外,其餘配送時段平均裝載率皆達85%以上,而三日的改善效果,車輛數至多減少27%、路線數至多減少5%、總配送距離至多減少4%、總配送時間至多減少2%。
本研究透過量化與質化分析,探討個案公司營運模式轉型前後配送作業所創造的永續經營效益。經濟面效益乃以車輛相關成本作為量化分析的參數,個案公司轉型後,可以減少車隊採購資金成本約15億9千萬元,減少年度車隊營運費用約8億3千萬元。社會面效益則透過文獻資料分析與訪談過去代送商專家,質化分析顯示轉型後,司機專業度大幅提升、工作效率與安全性更高並且能夠增加分店的就業人員需求。在環境效益的評估,主要探討轉型前後溫室氣體排放量的變化。氣體排放量分析部分,乃採用敏感度分析方法,推估代送模式及越庫模式的二氧化碳排放當量;以車隊利用率高低及配送路線距離比例變化,還原代送模式下的總配送距離,進行排放當量比較的敏感度分析。分析結果呈現,營運模式轉型的配送作業可以節省約2千公噸的二氧化碳排放當量, 高達約48%的下降效益。
總結之,本研究發展出一個具理論基礎且在超市配送作業路線規劃的實用性演算法,經過個案公司量化實證研究,證實此路線規劃法可成為中大型超市越庫物流中心外向配送作業的一個有效路線規劃方法。個案公司轉型至越庫營運模式後,本研究從永續經營角度就配送作業的分析發現,個案公司不僅在經濟面創造很大的效益,在社會面及環境面,也都創造了相當不錯的效益。
The supply chain logistics structures of Taiwan supermarket chains are mainly an inventory-based central warehousing distribution networks. The case firm in this study adopted a traditional multi-layer warehouse distribution network before 2011 with many small and medium-sized intermediate distributors and their warehouses. After several years’ assessment and planning, the case firm decided to transform to a cross-docking based supply chain operational model in 2012. During the period from March to June in 2012, stores in the northern and southern regions in Taiwan had successfully migrated to the cross-docking supply chain operations while the central region is still under the transition.
Many governments and businesses are very concerned about environmental protection issues nowadays. They are eager to reduce GHS (Green House Gas) emissions and find alternative clean energy sources to slow or reverse the rate of global warming. Many traditional industries are looking for better operational models to reengineer or renew their supply chains to utilize energy more effectively and reduce GHG emissions. Their aim is to achieve a sustainable society.
This study has developed a truck routing heuristics planning method for the north cross-docking distribution center serving 274 stores of the case firm. The planning method was empirically examined (or implemented) for its validity and robustness using the maximum, medium, and minimum daily store demands in October of 2012. The purpose of the study is to discover how to plan the delivery routes effectively with good delivery performance for a cross-docking distribution system and what are the characteristics of the planning method. In the meantime, this study also investigated the business sustainability effects, i.e., the economic, environmental, and societal impacts, after the transformation from a multi-layer inventory-based distribution network to a cross-docking zero inventory distribution network.
Based on the classical vehicle routing sweep algorithm and the consideration of the practical requirements and constraints, a three-stage improvement heuristics was developed to plan the delivery routes from the cross-docking distribution center to the stores. The first stage is called “cage loading”, i.e., to load the cages to the trucks; the second stage is called “truck dispatching for multiple routes”, i.e., a truck is assigned more than one routes during a delivery shift; and the third stage is called “route consolidation”, i.e., to consolidate routes with low truck capacity utilizations. The heuristics can improve delivery performance indicators such as the number of routes, delivery vehicles, et al.
The original delivery route planning method could only achieve a maximum of 75% of truck capacity utilization, mostly lower than 75%. After using the three-stage improvement heuristics, the computational results have shown the truck capacity utilizations are all improved above 85% with only one exception at 83%. As for the routing heuristics itself, key delivery performance indicators are also improved with 27% reduction in trucks, 5% reduction in routes, 4% reduction in delivery distances, and 2% reduction in delivery time comparing to the first stage heuristics solutions.
Through quantitative and qualitative analyses, the impacts on business sustainability are assessed for the transformation from the inventory-based distribution model to the cross-docking distribution model. For the economic impact, according to the fleet cost analyses, the case firm can reduce around 1.59 billion NTD on truck purchasing capital and around 830 million NTD on fleet operations costs; For the social impact, through literature review and ex-distributors’ interviews, the transformation allowed a substantial uplift of driver professionalism, an increase of distribution efficiency and safety, and an increase of demand on store employees; the focus of environmental impact looked at the change of CO2e emissions. Using fleet utilization rate and delivery route distance ratio as two key parameters for the sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the distribution model transformation had reduced about 2,000 tons of CO2e annually, a 48% reduction effect.
In sum, this study has developed a practical supermarket chain delivery routing heuristics with theoretical foundation. Through the quantitative analyses of the planning of truck routes of a large cross-docking real case, it is empirically tested the validity of the route planning heuristics designed in this study as an effective planning approach. Furthermore, the transformation of the case firm from its traditional distribution model to the cross-docking supply chain operational model has created not just economic values but also environmental and societal values.
致謝 I
摘 要 II
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 X
第一章 緒論 -1 -
第一節、研究背景與動機 - 1 -
第二節、研究目的 - 2 -
第三節、研究對象與範圍 - 2 -
第四節、研究流程 - 3 -
第二章 文獻探討 - 4 -
第一節、超市產業 - 4 -
一、全球超市產業趨勢 - 4 -
二、台灣超市產業的特性與趨勢 - 5 -
三、趨勢對營運與物流的影響 - 7 -
第二節、超市的越庫作業 - 10 -
一、越庫營運模式 - 10 -
二、越庫外向配送規劃 - 15 -
(一)配送路線規劃方法 - 15 -
(二) 掃描法 - 18 -
(三)EIQ分析 - 19 -
第三節、企業社會責任與碳足跡管理 - 20 -
一、企業社會責任與永續發展 - 20 -
二、碳足跡 - 24 -
第三章 研究方法 - 26 -
第一節、研究設計 - 26 -
第二節、資料蒐集 - 26 -
一、文獻回顧法 - 26 -
二、專家訪談法 - 26 -
三、直接觀察法 - 27 -
第三節、個案公司路線規畫 - 27 -
一、掃描法 - 27 -
二、路線規劃方式 - 30 -
三、碳足跡計算公用係數與燃油效率 - 31 -
第四章 個案公司供應鏈營運模式轉型 - 32 -
第一節、代送商時期 - 32 -
第二節、越庫供應鏈營運模式轉型時期 - 37 -
第三節、越庫供應鏈營運模式實施前後效益比較 - 40 -
第五章、個案公司超市配送作業路線規劃演算法 - 43 -
第一節、個案公司超市配送作業背景介紹 - 43 -
第二節、越庫物流中心配送網路及配送路線規劃模式關鍵名詞定義 - 45 -
第三節、路線規劃演算法運算資料前處理 - 49 -
第四節、配送路線規劃演算法運算分析步驟 - 55 -
一、法則一「籠車合移」演算步驟 - 55 -
二、法則二「一車多趟」改善演算步驟 - 58 -
三、法則三「分店籠車拆併」改善演算步驟 - 59 -
四、三法則示意圖 - 60 -
第六章 配送路線規劃演算法運算結果之分析與討論 - 63 -
第一節、各分店配送籠車需求分布 - 63 -
第二節、路線規劃演算法三法則演算結果分析 - 68 -
一、最大日 - 68 -
二、中間日 - 72 -
三、最小日 - 75 -
四、四種情境演算結果比較 - 84 -
第三節、規劃路線配送作業二氧化碳排放當量 - 87 -
一、越庫營運模式配送作業二氧化碳排放當量 - 87 -
二、越庫營運模式演算法距離改善之二氧化碳排放當量節省 - 88 -
第四節、營運模式轉型前後配送作業二氧化碳排放當量分析 - 90 -
一、代送模式二氧化碳排放當量敏感度分析 - 90 -
二、營運模式轉型前後配送作業二氧化碳排放當量差異敏感度分析 - 91 -
第五節、越庫模式配送作業永續效益探討 - 94 -
一、經濟效益 - 94 -
二、社會效益 - 96 -
三、環境效益 - 97 -
四、小結 - 97 -
第七章、結論與建議 - 99 -
第一節、研究發現 - 99 -
第二節、研究貢獻 - 102 -
一、配送路線規劃演算法之應用與改良 - 102 -
二、典型掃描法的改良應用 - 103 -
第三節、研究限制與建議 - 105 -
一、研究限制 - 105 -
二、研究建議 - 106 -
參考文獻 - 108 -
附錄 - 114 -
附錄一 訪談問卷 - 114 -
附錄二 路線規畫結果─配送路線資料 - 116 -

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