(3.236.231.61) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/11 22:26
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:許瀷騰
研究生(外文):Shi Yi Teng
論文名稱:反恐戰爭中美軍對伊拉克宣傳作為分析
論文名稱(外文):An Analysis of U.S. Army Propaganda Activities in War on Terrorism
指導教授:謝奕旭謝奕旭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Xie Yi Xu
口試委員:余一鳴陳紫財
口試日期:2013-05-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防大學政治作戰學院
系所名稱:政治研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:美伊戰爭反恐戰爭心理作戰宣傳戰戰略溝通
外文關鍵詞:War on TerrorPsychological WarfareWar propagandaStrategic Communications
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:435
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:105
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
911事件發生後,美國總統小布希立即在國會提出「反恐戰爭」的思維策略,並且強調恐怖攻擊雖對美國國家及群眾造成影響與傷害,但仍無損美國在捍衛自由民主與保障宗教自由的決心,美國將運用所有外交手段、金融影響力、資訊情報作為、及軍事作戰等能力,全面性打擊並找出背後的陰謀者,正式揭開反恐戰爭的序幕。
反恐主義提倡的意識理念,即有效獲得群眾認同並激發參與意願,其勝負關鍵,是由民眾的心智歸屬來決定。換言之,獲得民眾的支持,將是反恐戰爭勝負之關鍵,而民眾正是反恐戰爭重心之所在。美國透過宣傳方式與民眾溝通,改變伊拉克軍民與世人對反恐戰爭的誤解,尊重雙方在文化認知的差異,消弭恐怖份子藉由宣傳作為,所激起意識形態對立,建立雙向溝通的橋樑,爭取民心獲得戰爭最終勝利。
本論文以反恐戰爭為歷史背景,研析美軍在美伊戰爭中,宣傳作為究竟應以種方式才能對伊拉克民眾進行理念與心智的溝通,化解東、西文化差異下所產生衝突:首先反恐戰爭的緣起發展及其演進;其次探討美軍宣傳設計理論與發展;最後分析美軍宣傳作為各項分類及要素。
911事件促使美國重新思考,除應強化軍事能力與武器裝備的精良,更應該在境外戰爭對抗中,以「人」為出發點,結合人類學、文化研究以及語言等相關領域知識,作為行對規劃與策定依據,漸少軍事行動中因思想或價值認知差異,造成的衝突與誤解。誠如法國皇帝拿破論所言:「世界上只有兩種力量,利劍和思想,從長遠而論,利劍總敗在思想」。而思想根源則必然利基於「人」。

關鍵字:美伊戰爭、反恐戰爭、宣傳戰、心理作戰、戰略溝通

After the 911 incident, U.S. President George W. Bush immediately raised thinking strategy “war on terror” in Congress, although the terrorist attacks and stressed that the country and the people of the United States and the impact of injuries, but still destructive in defense of American freedom, democracy and the protection of religious freedom determination, the United States will use all diplomatic means, financial clout, as intelligence information, and military combat capabilities, comprehensive combat and identify those behind the conspiracy, officially kicked off the war on terror.
Counter-terrorism to promote awareness of the idea that effective recognition and inspire people to get involved in the will, the key to their victory, is determined by people's mental attribution. In other words, the support of the people, will be key to the outcome of the war on terror, and the public is where the center of gravity of the war on terror. American way of communication with the public through publicity, the Iraqi army and people of the world to change the misconceptions of the war on terrorism, mutual respect for differences in cultural awareness, and eliminate terrorist propaganda as by, aroused by ideological opposition to establish a two-way bridge , winning hearts and minds get the final victory of war.
In this thesis, the historical background of the war on terrorism, Research and Analysis in the U.S. in the Iraq war, propaganda as to what should be ways to communicate the idea of the Iraqi people and mental resolve the East, the West cultural differences arising under conflict: First War on Terror the origin and evolution of development; Second American propaganda designed to explore the theory and development; Finally, as the U.S. military propaganda classification and elements.
911 incident prompted the United States to rethink, in addition to strengthening the military capabilities with sophisticated weaponry, should the confrontation outside the war to “people” as a starting point, combined with knowledge of related fields such as anthropology, cultural studies, language, as the line of planning with the policy set based conflict and misunderstanding of military operations diminished value due to ideological or cognitive differences caused. As stated on the French emperor Napoleon said: “There are only two forces in the world, the sword and the spirit. In the long run the sword will always be conquered by the spirit”. The ideological roots inevitably niche in the “people ”.

Keywords: War in Iraq, War on Terror, War Propaganda, Psychological Warfare, Strategic Communications

目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節、研究動機與目的 1
第二節 文獻探討 6
第三節 分析架構與研究方法 14
第四節 研究範圍與限制 16
第二章 反恐戰爭的緣起、發展及宣傳的重要性 19
第一節 反恐戰爭的緣起與發展 19
第二節 反恐戰爭的特徵與致勝關鍵 24
第三節 宣傳在反恐戰爭中的關鍵作用 29
第三章 美軍宣傳設計理論與應用 35
第一節 美軍戰略溝通與心戰及宣傳關係 35
第二節 美軍心戰宣傳品設計原則與應用 42
第三節 宣傳理論與原則對群眾的影響 49
第四章 美軍宣傳作為分析 55
第一節 宣傳作為的類型分析 57
第二節 宣傳作為的目標對象選定之分析 70
第三節 宣傳作為的環境因素考量之分析 79
第五章 結論 86
壹、研究發現 86
貳、研究建議 89
參考文獻 92



表目錄
表 1軍事溝通能力比較 39
圖目錄
圖 1研究架構圖 14
圖 3-1「國家階層」戰略溝通與「軍事階層」戰略溝通關係 37
圖 3-2正確的視覺平衡設計 45
圖 3-3錯誤的視覺平衡設計 45
圖 3-4數字、色彩引導的設計 46
圖 3-8人類視覺閱讀順序 47
圖 3-6人類視覺引導 47
圖 4-1傳單編號IZD-8104 57
圖 4-2傳單編號IZD-069 58
圖 4-3傳單編號IZD-019 60
圖 4-4傳單編號IZD-028 61
圖 4-5傳單編號IZD-2502 62
圖 4-6傳單編號IZD-060a 63
圖 4-7傳單編號IZD-7509 64
圖 4-8傳單編號IZD-047 66
圖 4-9傳單編號IZD-07 67
圖 4-10傳單編號IZD-022b 68
圖 4-11傳單編號IZD-023 70
圖 4-12傳單編號IZD-070 73
圖 4-13傳單編號IZD-057 73
圖 4-14英國心戰大隊製作傳單範例……………………………………………74
圖 4-15傳單編號IZD-050 ………………………………………………………76
圖 4-16傳單編號IZD-024 ………………………………………………………77
圖 4-17傳單編號IZD-009 ………………………………………………………78
壹、中文部分
一、專書著作
王玉民,1994年。《社會科學研究方法原理》。台北:洪葉文化。
拉斯威爾(Harold D. Lasswell)著,張潔田譯,2003年。《世界大戰中的宣傳技巧》北京:中國人民大學出版社。
易君博,1984年。《政治理論與研究方法》。台北:三民書局。
孫中山,2006年。《孫中山全集》。北京:中華書局。
翁明賢,2010年。《解構與建構:台灣的國家安全戰略研究》。台北:五南出版社。
國防大學政戰學院。
國防部總政治作戰局編,2007年。《國軍政治作戰要綱》。台北:國防部政治作戰局。
畢恆達,2010年。《教授為什麼沒告訴我》。台北:小畢空間出版社。
陳壽,1975年。《三國志》。台北:新文豐出版公司。
葉至誠、葉立誠合著,2001年。《研究方法典論文寫作》。台北:商鼎文化。
謝奕旭,2011年。《新戰爭型態的心智戰爭:美軍戰略溝通與民-軍行動分析》。台北:

二、期刊論文
方鵬程,2010年。〈美軍戰略性傳播的媒體用運用分析:以2003年波灣戰爭為例〉,97 期,頁23-46。
方鵬程,2010年。〈總體戰爭時期與冷戰時期的宣傳戰〉,《復興崗學報》,98期,頁51-78。
洪陸訓,2006年。〈新世紀政治作戰的意義與範圍初探〉,《第九屆國軍軍事社會科學學 術研討會論文集》,頁53-86。
胡光夏,2007年。〈媒體與軍隊關係的演進:戰時新聞媒體管制與運用的發展〉,《復興 崗學報》,89期,頁77-106。
胡光夏,2007年。〈傳播科技發展及其在不同時期戰爭中的新聞產製〉,《復興崗學報》, 90期,頁37-72。
胡光夏,2010年。〈美國「公共資訊委員會」對宣傳機制設立與宣傳策略應用的啟發〉, 《復興崗學報》,99期,頁173-200。
孫本初,2005年。〈如何寫好一篇優質論文〉,《撰寫碩博士論文與投稿學術期刊論壇》, 頁1-7。
羅清俊,2005年。〈如何讓碩博士論文計畫具有說服力〉,《撰寫碩博士論文與投稿學術 期刊論壇》,頁1-6。

貳、英文部分
一、專書
Armor, Matthew L. Smith, “ J.F.C. Fuller: His Methods, Insights, and Vision,” Strategy
Beebe, Shannon D., Mary Kaldor, 2010. The Ultimate Weapon is no Weapon: Human Security and the New Rules of War and Peace. New York: PublilcAffairs Books.
Berkowitz, Bluce, 2003. The New Face of War: How War Will be Fought in the 21st Century. New York: The Free Press.
Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2012. Commission on Smart Power: A Smarter, More Secure America. Washington D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Chairman of Joint Chief of Staff, 2010. Military Information Support Operations, JP 3-13.2 .Washington D.C.: Office of Joint Chief of Staff.
Chairman of Joint Chief of Staff, 2011. Special Operations, JP 3-05. Washington D.C.: Office of Joint Chief of Staff.
Chairman of Joint Chief of Staff, 2012. Information Operation, JP 3-13. Washington D.C.: Office of Joint Chief of Staff.
Chandler, Robert W., 1981.War of ideas: The U.S. Propaganda Campaign in Vietnam. Colorado: Westview Press.
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv, 2006. Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone. New York: Knopf, 2006.
Charters, David, 1989. From Palestine to Northern Ireland: British Adaptation to Low-Intensity Operation. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers.
Clausewitz, Carl von, trans. Graham, James J., 2009. On War. New York: Acheron Press.
Codevilla, Angelo M., 1989. “Political Warfare,” in Political Warfare and Psychological OperationsRethinking the US Approach, ed. Carnes Lord, Frank R Barnett .Washington, D.C.: Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS).
Cooper, Martha, 1989. Analyzing public discourse. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Dalby, David, 2000. The linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. Oxford: Ross.
Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 2010.,JP1-02. Washington, DC: Department of Defense
Department of the Army, 2006. Counterinsurgency, FM 3-24.Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.
Department of the Army, 2006. Psychological Operations Process Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, FM 3-05.301. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.
Dougherty, William E., Morris Z. Janowitz, 1958. A Psychological Warfare Casebook. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.
Dr. Patrick Sookhdeo, 2007. Iraq Briefing: A Political, Ethnic and Religious Analysis of Iraq in the Post-Saddam Era. England: Institute for the Study of Islam and Christianity, ISIC.
Echevarria, Antulio Joseph, 2003. Globalization and the Nature of War. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.
Ellul, Jacques, trans. Konrad Kellen, Jean Lerner, 1973. Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes .U.K.: Vintage.
Entman, Robert M., 2004. Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Fuller, J. F. C., 1960. The Generalship of Alexander The Great. New Brunswick: Da Capo Press.
Fuller, J. F. C., 1992. The Conduct of War, 1789-1961: A Study of the Impact of the French, Industrial, and Russian Revolutions on War and Its Conduct. Da Capo Press: Reprint edition.
Fuller, John Frederick Charles, 1920. Tanks in the Great War. London: Murray.
Gackenbach, Jayne, 2009. Psychology and the Internet : Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Transpersonal Implications. Waltham: Massachusetts.
Garfield, Andrew, 2006. Succeeding in Phase IV: British Perspectives on the U.S. Effort to Stabilize and Reconstruct Iraq. Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute.
Hall, Stuart, 1997. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Washington D.C: SAGE Publications.
Hall, Stuart, 2007.Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices- Culture, Media and Identities series. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hoffman, Frank G., 2007. Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid War. Virginia: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2010. Joint Publication 5-0: Joint Operation Planning. Washington, D.C.: Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2011. Joint Publication 3-0: Joint Operations. Washington, D.C.: Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Jowett, Garth S., Victoria O’Donnell, 2012. Propaganda & Persuasion. Washington D.C: SAGE Publications.
Jowett, Garth, Victoria J. O'Donnel, 2011, Propaganda and Persuasion. Washington, D.C: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Jowett, O’Donnell, 1992. Propaganda and Persuasion. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Karlins, M., H.I. Abelson, 1970. Persuasion: How opinions and attitudes are changed. New York: Springer.
Kecskemeti, 1973. Propaganda: In Handbook of Communication. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Kepel, Gilles, 2004. The war for Muslim minds: Islam and the West. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Howard University Press.
Lasswell, Harold D., 2013. Propaganda Technique in the World War. London: Martino Fine Books.
Lewis, Adrian R., 2007. The American Culture of War: The History of U.S. Military Force from World War II to Operation Iraqi Freedom. New York: Taylor and Francis Group.
Lotzin, Felix Christoph, 2013. The Emperor on the Battlefield: Napoleon's Worth as a Military Commander. Germany Hamburger: Diplomica Verlag .
Macdonald, Scot, 2007. Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-First Century-Altered Images and deception. Abingdon UK: Routledge.
National Intelligence Estimate, 2002. Iraq's Continuing Programs for Weapons of Mass Destruction. Washington D.C.: National Intelligence Estimate.
Paddock Jr., Alfred H., 1982. US Army Special Warfare. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.
Perris, Arnold, 1985. Music as propaganda: Art to persuade, art to control. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Peters, Ralph, 1999. Fighting for the Future: Will America Triumph? Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
Pratkanis, Anthony, Elliot Aronson, 2001. Age of propaganda: The everyday use and abuse of persuasion. New York: Freeman.
Reid, Brian Holden, 1998. Studies in British Military Thought: Debates with Fuller and Liddell Hart. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Smith, George W., “Avoiding a Napoleonic Ulcer: Bridging the Gap of Cultural Intelligence,” Marine Corps War College (Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Marine Corps War College, 2004), p.35.
Strange, Joseph L., 1998. “W”War: A Case for Strategic Principles of War. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps University.
The White House, 2003. National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Washington, DC: The White House.
The White House, 2003. National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Washington, DC: The White House.
The White House, 2005. National Strategy for Victory in Iraq. Washington, DC: The White House.
The White House, 2006. National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Washington, DC: The White House.
Toby Clark, 1997. Art and Propaganda in the Twentieth Century. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Torreon, Barbara Salazar, 2012.U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Current Conflicts. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2012
U.S. Department of Defense, 2001. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Managed Information Dissemination. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistic.
U.S. Department of Defense, 2007. Irregular Warfare (IW) Joint Operating Concept (JOC). Washington D.C.: Department of Defense.
US Joint Forces Command Joint Warfighting Center, 2010. Commander’s Handbook for Strategic Communication and Communication Strategy Version 3.0. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense.
Waller, J. Michael, 2008.“The Importance of Words,” in Strategic Influence Public Diplomacy, Counter Propaganda and Political Warfare, ed. J. Michael Waller. Washington, D.C.: The Institute of Politics Press.
Weschler, Lawrence, 1983. Solidarity: Poland in the Season of its Passion. Canada: Fireside Books.
Wilson, Edward O., 1998. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. UK: Vintage Books.
Wykes, Alan, 1973.Goebbels. New York: Ballantine Books.

二、期刊
Abdul Aziz Said, Nathan C. Funk, 2002. “The Role of Faith in Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution, ”Peace and Conflict Studies. 9(1): 30-38.
Al-Krenawi, 2007. “learning achievement, social adjustment, and family conflict among bedouin-arab children from polygamous and monogamous families,” Social Psychology. 140(3): 340–358.
Allison Abbe, Stanley Halpin, 2009.“The Cultural Imperative for Professional Military Education and Leader Development,” Parameters. 10(3): 18-30.
Bonvillain, Dorothy Guy, 2007. “Cultural awareness and WOT ,” Field Artillery. 4(1):12-32.
Boulé II, John R., 2002. “Operational Planning and Conflict Termination,” Joint Force Quarterly. 4(29): 89-98.
Cohen, Ariel, 2004 .“ War of Ideas:Combationg Militant Isamist Idealogy,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs.5(1):110-113.
El-Nawawy, Mohammed, 2006. “US Public diplomacy in the Arab world: The news credibility of Radio Sawa and Television Alhurra in five countries,” Global Media and Communication. 2(2): 180-192.
Hoffman, Bruce, 2007. “A Form of Psychological Warfare,” E-Journal USA, Foreign Policy Agenda. 12(5):1-17.
Hoffman, Frank G., 2007. “Neo-Classical Counterinsurgency, ” Parameters. 1(37):67-82.
Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre (ITAC), 2007. “Al Qaeda: Propaganda and Media Strategy,” Trends in Terrorism Series. 2(3):1-15.
Jai Singh, Ajay Singh, 2013. “The War on Terror… Over ? Part2 ,” Small Wars Journal.36(10): 2-6.
Josten, Richard J., 2006. “Strategic Communication: Key Enabler for Elements of National Power,” IO Sphere. 2(1): 16-35.
Kohnke, Lucas, 2011. “Honor as a Barrier in Adapting Technology in Language Learning Context in Oman, ” Theory and Practice in Language Studies.1(10): 1360-1370.
Mattis, James N., Frank Hoffman, 2005. “Future Warfare: The Rise of Hybrid Wars,” Proceedings Magazine. 132(4): 1-18.
Mrphy, Dennis M., James F. White, 2007. “Propaganda: Can a Word Decide a War?,” U.S. Army War College. 37(3): 1-16.
Nuti, Paul, 2006.“Smart Card: Don’t Leave Military Base Without It,” Anthropology News. 47(7): 10-19.
Payne, Kenneth, 2005. “ The Media as an Instrument of War,” U.S. Army War College. 35(1): 79-90.
Quiggin, Tom, 2009. “Understanding al-Qaeda’s Ideology for Counter-Narrative Work.” Perspectives on Terrorism. 3(2): 4-24.
Roca, Raimundo Rodríguez, 2008. “Information Operations during Counterinsurgency Operations: Essential Option for a Limited Response, ”Athena Intelligence Journal. 3(1): 20-41.
Romarheim, Anders G., 2005. “Definitions of Strategic Political communication,” Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt. 689:1-3.
Ruby, Charles L., 2002. “The Definition of Terrorism.” Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy. (2)1:1-18.
Seib, Philip, 2006.“ The Al-Qaeda Media Machine,” Military Review. 8(3):70-82.
Woods, Kevin M., Project Leader with James Lacey, 2007. “Iraqi Perspectives Project Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents Volume 1 (Redacted),” Institute for Defense Analyses. 1(4): 27-30.

三、官方文件
Barack Hussein Obama II, 2012. “Remarks by the President at the National Defense University,” The White House, June 8, At http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/05/23/remarks-president-national-defense-university (Accessed 2013/10/01)
The White House, 2004. “Dr. Rice Addresses War on Terror,” At http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2004/08/20040819-5.html (Accessed 2013/8/20)

四、網路資源
2001. “Infinite Justice, out - Enduring Freedom, ” At http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1563722.stm (Accessed 2014/01/20)
2003. “Key points: Bush and Blair,” At http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/3222768.stm (Accessed 2014/01/20)
2009.“Obama Discussed Daschle, the Economy,” At http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/03/obama.qanda/index.html (Accessed 2014/01/20)
2011. “'Al-Qaeda jihadist animation targets children',” At http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14232143 (Accessed 2014/01/13)
Ali, Mohamed Bin, 2004.“The Diffusion of Ideas in The War on Terror”, AT http://www.pvtr.org/pdf/Ideology%20Response/The%20diffusion%20of%20ideas%20in%20the%20war%20on%20terror.pdf (Accessed 2014/02/20)
Al-Zawahiri, Ayman,2004. “English Translation of Ayman al-Zawahiri’s Letter to Abu Musab al-Zarqsawi,” At http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/006/203gpuul.as p (Accessed 2014/01/13)
Azami, Dawood, 2010. “Taliban Harness Power of the Web,” At http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8570742.stm (Accessed 2014/02/18)
Bartholf, Mark C., 2012.“Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin: Human Terrain System,” Federation of American Scientists, At http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/army/mipb/2011_04.pdf (Accessed 2013/8/20)
Brookes, Peter, 2005. “Hearts and Minds, ”At http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2005/12/hearts-and-minds (Accessed 2014/01/20)
Bush, George W., 2001. “Address to Congress and the American People following the Sept. 11, 2001 Attacks(“War on Terror” Declaration),” At http://edition.cnn.com/2001/US/09/20/gen.bush.transcript/ (Accessed 2013/8/16)
Cavendish, Julius, 2011. “Al-Qaeda Glossy Advises Women to Cover Up and Marry A Martyr,” At http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/alqaida-glossy-advises-women-to-cover-up-and-marry-a-martyr-2240992.html (Accessed 2014/01/13)
CIA, “The World Factbook: MIDDLE EAST: IRAQ, 2007.” Central Intelligence Agency, At https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html (Accessed 2014/4/15)
Claessen, Erik, 2007. “Discouraging Hearts and Minds: Democracies and Insurgencies, ” At http://www.army.mil/professionalWriting/volumes/volume5/august_2007/8_07_1.html(Accessed 2014/01/20)
Combating Terrorism Center, 2010. “Letter to Mullah Mohammed „Omar from bin Laden (English Translation),” At http://www.ctc.usma.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/AFGP-2002-600321-Trans.pdf (Accessed 2014/01/13)
Ed Rouse (Ret), 2010. “Psychological Operations/Warfare,” At http://www.psywarrior.com/psyhist.html (Accessed 2014/4/12)
Ekinci, Mehmet Mücahit, 2012. “Usage of Propaganda and Persuasion in Politicsm,” At http://www.orsam.org.tr/en/enUploads/Article/Files/2010826_Usage%20of%20Propaganda%20and%20Persuasion%20in%20Politics-1.pdf (Accessed 2013/08/20)
Finance Online, 2011. “U.S. Weapons Are Sold to Whom?” At http://www.finance-ol.com/2011/10/u-s-weapons-are-sold-to-whom/ (Accessed 2014/2/10)
Foreign Broadcast Information Service, 2009.Compilation of Osama Bin Laden Statements 1994-January 2004, At https://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ubl-fbis.pdf‎ (Accessed 2014/02/20)
Friedman, Herbert A., 2010. “Operation of Iraq Freedom,” Psywarrior, At http://www.psywarrior.com/OpnIraqiFreedom.html (Accessed 2014/4/12)
Friedman, Herbert A., 2010. “Psychological Operations in Afghanistan,” Psywarrior, At http://www.psywarrior.com/Herbafghan.html (Accessed 2014/01/20)
From Associated Press, 2004. “New U.S. Channel Airs on Arab TV,” Los Angeles Times, At http://articles.latimes.com/2004/feb/15/world/fg-tv15 (Accessed 2014/4/17)
Global Security.org, 2010. “4th Military Information Support Operations Group (Airborne),” GlobalSecurity.org, At http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/4psyopgp.htm (Accessed 2014/4/12)
Gwakh, Bashir Ahmad, 2011. “Taliban Employs Modern Weapons In 'War of Words',” At http://www.eurasianet.org/node/63111 (Accessed 2014/02/18)
International Security Assistance Force, 2009. “Tactical Directive,” At http://www.nato.int/isaf/docu/official_texts/Tactical_Directive_090706.pdf (Accessed 2014/01/20)
Jews, Jihad Against, Crusaders, Federation of American Scientists, February 23, 1998, At http://edition.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/bush.speech.text/ (Accessed 2014/2/10)
Jones, Jones, 2008. “Strategic Communications: A Mandate for the United States,” At http:// www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/1839.pdf (Accessed 2013/08/20)
Laden, Osama bin, 1996. “Bin Laden’s Fatwa,” At http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1996.html (Accessed 2014/2/10)
Lieven, Anatol, David Chambers, 2006. “The limits of propaganda,” Los Angeles Times, At http://articles.latimes.com/2006/feb/13/opinion/oe-lieven13 (Accessed 2014/4/17)
Murphy, Jarrrtt, 2003. “U.S. propaganda pitch halted,” At http://www.cbsnews.com/news/us-propaganda-pitch-halted/ (Accessed 2014/4/17)
The Guardian, 2002. “Full text: bin Laden’s letter to America ,” At http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/nov/24/theobserver (Accessed 2014/2/10)
The Washington Times, 003.Taliban Harness Power of the Web,” At http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8570742.stm (Accessed 2014/02/20)
The Weekly Standard, 2005. “English Translation of Ayman al-Zawahiri's letter to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi,” At http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/006/203gpuul.asp (Accessed 2014/01/13)
Zarabozo, Jamaal al-Din, 2007.“The Cohesive Nature of the Family,” The Religion of Islam, At http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/494/viewall/ (Accessed 2014/4/12)

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 胡光夏,2007年。〈傳播科技發展及其在不同時期戰爭中的新聞產製〉,《復興崗學報》, 90期,頁37-72。
2. 方鵬程,2010年。〈總體戰爭時期與冷戰時期的宣傳戰〉,《復興崗學報》,98期,頁51-78。
3. 王志慧、 蔡英美、 陳盈幸(2008)。幼教老師休閒知覺自由、休閒利益和休閒阻礙與休閒參與關係之研究。國立臺中技術學院學報,9(1),17-28。
4. 方彥博、呂呂謙、莊詩歆(2013)。離島地區民眾休閒動機、參與行為與休閒阻礙之研究。運動休閒管理學報,10(1),64-87。
5. 李明榮(1997)。從生活型態看休閒文化演進。師友月刊,366,4-9
6. 杜靜鎔、劉昆賢(2011)。我國軍事院校學生參與休閒運動行為與阻礙因素之相關研究。休閒保健期刊第五期,133-140。
7. 林禹良(2003)。基層警察人員休閒阻礙之現況研究。大專體育學刊,5(1),49-61。
8. 林秀卿(2013)。驗證慢速壘球參與者休閒阻礙、休閒處置策略與休閒參與頻率結構模式之研究。運動休閒管理學報,10(2),62-81。
9. 吳勤榮、李仲仁、張耿介(2013)。警察人員休閒運動參與阻礙量表構念效度驗證之研究。運動休閒管理學報,10(1),88-99。
10. 黃蕙娟、謝惠竹、臧國帆(2013)。國民中學教師休閒運動參與以及休閒運動阻礙之研究-以苗栗縣公立國民中學為例。育達科大學報第34期,141-162。
11. 張珈瑛、陳建廷(2013)。樂齡族群運動休閒動機、休閒阻礙與休閒效益關係之研究。運動休閒管理學報,10(2), 82-91。
12. 劉莉玲、顏昌華、秦克堅(2011)。醫護人員工作壓力、壓力調適需求與休閒參與關係之研究。國立臺中技術學院學報第15期,1-22。
13. 謝筑虹、王俊明(2007)。親子休閒運動阻礙因素量表之編製。輔仁大學體育學刊,6,32-46。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔