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研究生:張育婷
研究生(外文):Chang, Yu-Ting
論文名稱:探討高社交焦慮者在情緒操弄下對社交威脅刺激的注意力偏誤
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Mood Manipulation on Attentional Bias of Social Anxious Individuals
指導教授:曾幼涵曾幼涵引用關係廖心玫廖心玫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tseng, Yo-HanLiao, Hsin-Mei
口試委員:陳畹蘭劉効樺
口試委員(外文):Chen, Wan-LanLiu, Shiau-Hua
口試日期:2014-05-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:慈濟大學
系所名稱:人類發展學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:高社交焦慮者注意力偏誤臉部表情回饋點偵測作業
外文關鍵詞:socially anxious individualsattention biasfacial feedback hypothesisdot-probe detection task
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社交焦慮疾患的特性在於:會在與他人的社交互動以及處在表現自我的情境中持續感到焦慮;同時,焦慮得以被維持是受到個體對威脅刺激的注意力偏誤所影響。目前探討高社交焦慮者的注意力偏誤之研究取向,大致可分為三類:(一)易於偵測威脅相關訊息、(二)注意力分離困難機制、以及(三)逃避威脅相關刺激。本研究除了在探討高社交焦慮對於社交威脅刺激的注意力偏誤為何外,亦使用臉部表情回饋作為調節情緒的方式,來瞭解此操弄對於高社交焦慮者在實驗前後情緒、以及對於正向與威脅訊息注意力偏誤的變化。本研究採用點偵測作業作為測量注意力之方式,參與者為46位高社交焦慮者與46位一般人,各組內再分為咬筷、含筷以及未操弄三種操弄,採2 × 3二因子實驗設計。研究結果發現,(一)與一般組相比,高社交焦慮者對於威脅刺激呈現易偵測的注意力偏誤;(二)在咬筷的操弄下,部分的自陳負向心情獲得改善;(三)高社交焦慮組中,與未操弄組相比,含筷組對於威脅刺激出現逃避之注意力偏誤,且對正向刺激出現逃避以及不易偵測之注意力偏誤;(四)高社交焦慮組中,咬筷組對於威脅刺激呈現逃避之注意力偏誤。根據本研究結果,分別有以下的討論:(一)在本研究作業中,高社交焦慮者具有易偵測威脅刺激的注意力偏誤;(二)臉部表情回饋的操弄效果可能發生在生理層面,而並未呈現在自陳量表的主觀情緒經驗中;(三)情緒操弄主要讓高社交焦慮-含筷組產生更高的焦慮情緒(可能在生理層面),使其對於正、負向情緒刺激皆呈現逃避的注意力偏誤。研究貢獻:建議高社交焦慮者在人際情境中,嘗試維持自然表情,讓自己免於對人際情境中的情緒線索過於敏感,而產生更嚴重的注意力偏誤情形。研究限制與未來建議:(一)增加樣本的多樣性;(二)在臉部表情回饋的操弄中,增加客觀的生理測量方式,同時亦可加強操弄的強度;(三)除了原先三種注意力偏誤外,探討高社交焦慮者其餘注意力偏誤的可能性。
The characteristics of social anxiety disorder are that the individual will feel anxious in social interaction and performing tasks; also, the anxiety will be maintained by the attentional bias to threatening stimuli. Currently, there are three approaches to investigating attentional bias of socially anxious individuals: (1) being prone to detect threat-relevant information, (2) having difficulty to disengage from threatening stimuli, (3) avoiding threat-relevant stimuli. This study investigated the attentional bias to socially threatening stimuli of socially anxious individuals. In the study, the participants’ emotions were manipulated by their facial expression in order to understand how their attention changed when facing positive and negative information before and after the experiment. Method: The participants consisted of 46 socially anxious individuals and 46 normal individuals. The former group and the latter group were independently assigned to one of the three conditions: facial feedback-smile, facial feedback-sad, and control, resulting in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Participants performed a variation of the dot-probe detection task, and filled out emotion scales. Result: (1) Compared with the control participants, the socially anxious individuals showed an attentional bias of being prone to detect threatening stimuli. (2) in the facial feedback-smile condition, the socially anxious individuals’ negative emotions were improved; (3) Compared with the control participants, the socially anxious individuals in the facial feedback-sad condition showed an attentional bias of avoiding threatening stimuli, and an attentional bias of avoiding or ignoring positive stimuli. (4) The socially anxious individuals in the facial feedback-smile condition showed an attentional bias of avoiding threatening stimuli. Discussion: (1) in present study, the socially anxious individuals were prone to detect threatening stimuli than the controls. (2) The effect of emotion manipulation did not show in the self-report which measured subjective emotional experience, but it might have occurred on the physiological level. (3) The emotional manipulation caused the socially anxious individuals in feedback- sad condition more anxious emotion, which led to an attentional bias of avoiding positive and negative emotional stimuli. It is suggested that, in social situations, socially anxious individuals may try to maintain natural facial expression to lower their sensitivity to emotional cues and to avoid severe attentional bias. Future research may increase the variety of participants, include physiological measures, increase the intensity of emotion manipulation, and investigate other types of attentional bias.
目錄
第一章  緒論
研究動機 1

第二章  文獻探討
第一節  高社交焦慮者的注意力偏誤 7
第二節  情緒狀態對於注意力偏誤之影響 16
第三節  以臉部表情回饋操弄情緒之相關假設 28
第四節  注意力派典 36
第五節  研究目的與假設 45

第三章  研究方法
第一節  研究對象 49
第二節  實驗作業與測量 51
第三節  實驗設計 56
第四節  研究量表 57
第五節  研究流程 63
第六節  統計分析方法 65

第四章  研究結果
第一節  描述統計 67
第二節  情緒操弄的評估 73
第三節  注意力作業的指標分數統計分析 76

第五章  綜合討論
第一節  高社交焦慮者對情緒刺激注意力偏誤之探討 83
第二節  高社交焦慮者在情緒操弄下對情緒刺激之注意力偏誤 87
第三節  研究限制與未來研究建議 96

參考文獻 99
附錄A 情緒刺激物 115
附錄B 英文版-「社交互動焦慮量表」 116
附錄C 社交互動焦慮量表(SIAS-C) 117
附錄D 英文版-「社交恐懼量表」 118
附錄E 社交恐懼量表(SPS-C) 119
附錄F 中文版情境特質焦慮量表-情境焦慮 121
附錄G 中文版情境特質焦慮量表-特質焦慮 122
附錄H 視覺類比心情量尺 123
附錄I  注意力作業指導語 124
附錄J  量表與刺激物授權同意書 128
附錄K 篩選階段同意書 133
附錄L 實驗階段同意書 135
附錄M 澄清階段同意書 137

表目錄
表3.1 實驗設計說明 65
表4.1 各組人口變項描述性統計 68
表4.2 高社交焦慮組與一般組在各量表上平均數與標準差 70
表4.3 各組參與者在各量表上的平均數與標準差 71
表4.4 三組操弄前後測分數成對T檢定分析摘要表 74
表4.5 咬筷操弄前後測分數成對T檢定分析摘要表 74
表4.6含筷操弄前後測分數成對T檢定分析摘要表 75
表4.7未操弄前後測分數成對T檢定分析摘要表 75
表4.8各組參與者的平均反應時間 77
表4.9在未操弄條件下高社交焦慮與一般組的T檢定分析摘要表 79
表4.10高社交焦慮三組操弄的注意力偏誤之變異數分析 80
表4.11本研究注意力偏誤之實驗結果 81

圖目錄
圖1 實驗作業示意圖 54


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