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研究生:黃思賓
研究生(外文):Sih-Ben Huang
論文名稱:認知轉換與錯誤信念理解的發展關係:一個訓練研究
論文名稱(外文):Developmental Relationships Between Cognitive Shifting and False Belief Understanding: A Training Study
指導教授:黃啟泰黃啟泰引用關係陳畹蘭陳畹蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Tai HuangWan-Lan Chen
口試委員:姜忠信黃守廉
口試委員(外文):Chung-Hsin ChiangShoou- Lian Hwang
口試日期:2014-05-10
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:慈濟大學
系所名稱:人類發展學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:卡片向度改變分類作業認知轉換認知彈性固著執行功能心智理論抑制控制再描述能力訓練研究
外文關鍵詞:Dimensional Change Card Sorting task (DCCS)cognitive shiftingcognitive flexibilityperseverationexecutive functiontheory of mindinhibition controlredescription abilitytraining study
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認知轉換是執行功能的核心成分。卡片向度改變分類作業(DCCS)為探討幼兒認知轉換之備受矚目派典。研究文獻指出 3 歲幼兒在 DCCS 傾向以舊規則向度分類卡片,即便實驗者在每一嘗試次提示他們使用新規則的向度,約4歲後才能彈性行使規則轉換。有關認知轉換的發展基礎,一直是爭議的焦點。一些最近研究企圖釐清抑制控制或表徵機制運作更適合解釋認知轉換的發展改變,而上述機制在心智理論文獻同時也被認為和幼兒歸因他人的錯誤信念有關,因此探討幼兒無法行使規則轉換的原因,有助於同時澄清認知轉換的發展限制,以及認知轉換與歸因他人錯誤信念能力的發展關聯。本研究採取短期訓練設計,依據認知轉換的當代理論,設計增進注意力抑制與再描述能力的課程,探討訓練效果是否不限於 DCCS 作業,可從行使規則轉換遷移至歸因他人的錯誤信念。在注意力抑制訓練,實驗者教導幼兒從兩張分別有一形狀或顏色與目標相同的圖卡中,依照形狀或顏色提示選出與目標相同的圖卡;一組使用的圖卡為具體形狀與典型顏色,一組使用的圖卡為抽象形狀與非典型顏色。在再描述訓練,實驗者教導幼兒以形狀或顏色名稱分別對圖卡進行口語命名。另外一組控制組為接受與認知轉換無關的訓練課程組(數量恆存概念訓練)。而在結果方面,本研究發現,當使用抽象形狀與非典型顏色的圖卡進行注意力抑制訓練後,幼兒在卡片向度分類作業的後測表現顯著的優於前測表現,然而其他幾組訓練在卡片作業上則沒有顯著的改變。因此,我們傾向相信注意力抑制是認知轉換的核心能力。此外,於此研究中,無任何訓練的效果可轉移增進幼兒在歸因他人錯誤信念能力的表現,認知轉換與心智理論的發展關聯並非能單由注意力抑制或表徵再描述能力所能夠解釋。
Cognitive shifting is a key component of executive function. Researchers have used the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task (DCCS) to study cognitive shifting in preschoolers. It has been well-documented that 3-year-olds perseverate by continuing to sort pictures on cards by one dimension even when they are explicitly instructed to sort the pictures by another dimension. There is an increasing focus on the basis for
rule switching in young children. Recent research argues whether the inhibitory control or representational redescription process more adequately accounts for the ability to sort between dimensions, either of which has also been suggested to have possible links with that to attribute false belief in theory of mind development. Therefore, a resolution of this theoretical debate contributes not only to clarification of developmental constraints on cognitive shifting but also to its relations to developing a theory of mind. By capitalizing on prior theories about cognitive shifting, we devised two training procedures that were used to facilitate children’s ability to switch between rules. One emphasizes on inhibition of attentional inertia; the other emphasizes on flexibility in labeling pictures. For attention inhibition training, the experimenter taught the child to choose one of two cards, each of which shared a common dimension (shape or color) with the target, so that its shape or color matches that of the target. Some children sorted the pictures that consisted of familiar shapes and typical colors; some sorted the pictures that consisted of unfamiliar shapes and atypical colors. For redescription training, the experimenter taught the child to label the picture on a card according to its shape or color. There was one control group where children received training irrelevant to card sorting (i.e. number conservation). The results showed that children’s post-test performance on the DCCS task were superior to pre-test performance after the attention inhibition training. It suggests that attention inhibition is a core component to rule switching. When looking at the relationship between cognitive shifting and theory of mind development, the results did not reveal training effects generalizable to children’s post-test performance on false belief task. Their relationship can be explained neither by attention inhibition nor redescription ability.
摘要 II
Abstract III
謝辭 VI
目錄 VII
圖目錄 XI
表目錄 XII


第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻探討 3
第一節 執行功能中的認知轉換 3
第二節 卡片向度分類作業(Dimensional Change Card Sorting task) 5
第三節 卡片向度分類作業(DCCS)的理論探討 7
一、 認知複雜度控制理論(Cognitive complexity and control theory ;CCC theory) 7
二、 潛在記憶及表徵激發模型理論 (Latent memory and representation activation theory) 9
三、 抑制及注意力相關理論(Inhibition and Attention inertia) 11
四、 再描述理論(Redescription theory) 16
第四節 認知轉換與心智理論的關係 20
一、 執行功能和心智理論的關連 20
二、 認知轉換及心智理論作業之相關探討 21
第五節 過去的研究方法 24
第六節 研究目的與假設 26
第三章 研究設計 31
第一節 研究對象 31
第二節 研究情境 31
第三節 研究工具 31
一、 語文理解能力篩選 32
二、 認知轉換評估工具 32
三、 智理論作業工具 37
四、 訓練作業工具 39
第四節 研究流程及程序 51
一、 前測及後測的篩選及評估 52
二、 訓練進行 52
第四章 研究分析 54
第一節 受試者篩選 54
第二節 前後測表現 55
第三節 學習者與非學習者 58
第五章 綜合討論與建議 62
第一節 研究結果之總結 62
一、 幼兒在卡片向度分類作業及心智理論作業篩選時之表現 62
二、 各訓練組於前後測之改變 63
三、 幼兒訓練作業中的學習成長 64
第二節 結果之解釋與討論 64
一、 認知轉換與心智理論之間的關係 64
二、 卡片作業中認知轉換的核心能力 65
第三節 結論與研究限制 69
一、 結論 69
二、 研究限制 69
第四節 未來展望 71
參考文獻 73
附錄一:受試者招募文宣 85
附錄二:受試者同意書 86
附錄三:地點轉換作業故事圖卡及內容 90
附錄四:國立台灣大學REC審查核可證明 92

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