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研究生:葉瑪思
研究生(外文):Yilmaz KESKIN
論文名稱:土耳其與中國建立戰略伙伴關係之策略研究
論文名稱(外文):AN ANALYSIS OF BUILDING A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP WITH CHINA: TURKEY’S PERSPECTIVE
指導教授:宋興洲博士
指導教授(外文):Professor Hsing-Chou Sung
口試委員:宋鎮照博士高少凡博士蔡東杰博士戴萬平博士
口試委員(外文):Professor Soong Jenn-JawProfessor Shaw-Fawn KaoProfessor Tsai Tung-ChiehProfessor Wan-Ping Tai
口試日期:103/01/09
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:政治學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:333
中文關鍵詞:中土關係土耳其外交政策土耳其與歐盟關係中亞歐亞北大西洋公約組織上海合作組織
外文關鍵詞:Turkish foreign policy,Turkish–EU relations,Turkish–Chinese relations, .Eurasia,Central Asia,North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationShanghai Cooperation Organization
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本論文的目的是要探討土耳其對中國的戰略立場和外交政策,以揭示兩國的政治和經濟合作的額外優勢,並研究這種開放性的模式。近年來,隨著中國經濟的崛起和土耳其地區影響力的不斷增長,雙方的關係具有更重大的意義。這種變化主要是由於土耳其和中國崛起成為區域性及全球性大國的緣故。 因此,保持與中國政府的合作並捍衛中國公民維吾爾族的經濟和文化權利似乎是安卡拉偏好的選擇。由於其文化和歷史背景,土耳其與許多中亞國家緊密聯繫。土耳其位於歐洲和亞洲之間,肩負橋樑的角色,中國和土耳其分別位於歐亞大陸的東西兩端,從全球的觀點可促進合作型區域主義。雖然土耳其人民以前渴望加入歐洲聯盟(EU),但經過近五十年的等待,土耳其人變得不耐煩,已開始期待向東方發展。
本文的主要發現是,中國和土耳其關係應更進一步推展成一個全面的雙邊關係。學者們一般選擇套用傳統的框架,從政治、 經濟、軍事、社會和文化不同的角度,分析中國和土耳其的雙邊關係。 本研究旨在探討及分析土耳其和中國之間的合作問題,除了提供背景外,本文主要討論為什麼近年來中土合作越來越普遍與頻繁。新疆問題和不平衡的貿易問題是土耳其的最大困擾,而在政治方面,土耳其不可能支持中國在新疆的民族政策。 中國日益領悟到土耳其的重要性,可將其視為崛起的戰略合作夥伴,透過與土耳其的合作,就能強化對中東甚至歐洲的影響力。 中國不只是土耳其現有方向的替代方案,而是把雙邊關係發展到更高的層次。 這種發展將擴大土耳其多面向外交政策的範圍。
在很短的時間內,上海合作組織( SCO)對歐亞大陸和中亞發揮很大的影響力,證明是一個有效的組織。由於它的重要性和成功的發展,上海合作組織是土耳其增加國際參與機會的少數選項之一。上海合作組織成員國也無反對意見。研究結果指出,相較於其他的整合方案和組織,土耳其政府對於上海合作組織,抱持著正面態度。此外,如果土耳其皆獲得北大西洋條約組織和上海合作組織會員資格,這和成為歐盟成員並不衝突。目前,鑑於與中亞國家語言、文化和宗教的聯繫,土耳其尋求從目前只是上海合作組織“對話夥伴”的身份升級成為正式成員。
對中國與土耳其雙邊關係持有興趣的人士,本文提出建議; 透過新古典現實主義的角度,筆者關注於土耳其從原來為西方和東方之間的障礙,演變成為歐洲和亞洲之間的橋樑,到最後把橋梁的比喻從修辭轉變為現實。憑藉其不斷增長的影響力,土耳其希望向前看。中國特別是上海合作組織提供了這種可能性,雖然在價值觀和利益上,無論從經濟、政治和文化觀點都依然存在著分歧。 然而,中國作為一個崛起的大國,仍試圖在這個區域找到立足點,並對西亞和土耳其保持著謹慎的態度 。中國和土耳其將會在二十一世紀中發展出戰略夥伴關係。

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore Turkey’s strategic position and foreign policy toward China, to reveal the advantages of additional political and economic cooperation between the two countries, and to examine the modalities of such an opportunity. Recently, with China’s economic rise and Turkey’s growing regional clout, the relationship has taken on greater significance. The change is mostly due to the impressive rise of Turkey and China as powers, regionally and globally. Thus, maintaining cooperation with the Chinese government while defending the economic and cultural rights of Uyghurs as citizens of China appears to be Ankara’s preferred option.
Turkey has strong ties with many countries in Central Asia due to its cultural and historical background. It is situated as a bridge between Europe and Asia, and China and Turkey are well positioned at the eastern and western ends of Eurasia to catalyze a cooperative regionalism with global implications. Although the Turkish people were formerly eager to join the European Union (EU), prospects for doing so have faded; after nearly 5 decades of waiting, Turks are becoming impatient and have recently begun to look to the east.
The major finding from this dissertation is that Chinese–Turkish relations would be better advanced to a fullfledged bilateral relationship. Scholars generally opt to apply a traditional framework to analysis of bilateral relations between China and Turkey by examining political, economic, military, social, and cultural relations in separate consecutive sections. This study examins and analyzes issues of cooperation between Turkey and China. In addition to providing background, it mainly discusses why Turkish–Chinese cooperation has become common and frequent in recent years.
The Xinjiang and unbalanced-trade issues are causing uneasiness for Turkey, and it is politically impossible for Turkey to be supportive of China’s ethnic polices in Xinjiang. China is gradually realizing the importance of Turkey as a rising strategic partner, and China is able to strengthen its influences in the Middle East, or even Europe, by cooperating with Turkey. China, rather than presenting an alternative to Turkey’s existing orientation, might take bilateral relations to a higher level. Such a development may enrich the scope of a multidimensional Turkish foreign policy.
Over a short period of time, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has proved to be an effective organization, promising to exert great influence in Eurasia and Central Asia. Due to its importance and successful development, the SCO is one of Turkey’s few options for additional international engagement. SCO membership would not be without opposition, however. Findings indicated that the Turkish government has a positive attitude toward the SCO, compared to alternative integrations and organizations. Additionally, if Turkey were to gain dual membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the SCO, that would be compatible with EU membership in the globalizing world. Currently an SCO “dialogue partner,” Turkey seeks full membership, in view of its linguistic, cultural, and religious ties, with Central Asian states.
This dissertation leads us to suggestions for those interested in Turkish–Chinese bilateral relations; through the lens of neoclassical realism, the author focuses on Turkey’s evolution from a barrier to be a bridge between the West and the East, Europe and Asia; at last Turkey is turning the bridge analogy from rhetoric to reality. With its growing clout, Turkey wants to look forward. China and the SCO in particular offer that possibility, although differences in values and interests remain noteworthy, with their related economic, political, and cultural ramifications. However, China, a rising power still trying to find a foothold in this region, is careful while charting its way in both West Asia and Turkey. Both China and Turkey should develop their strategic partnership in the 21st century.

Table of Contents
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS VII
LIST OF TABLES IX
LIST OF FIGURES XI
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS XIII
ABSTRACT XVII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 General Background 3
1.2 Motivations and Research Questions 12
1.3 Objectives of the Study 13
1.4 Significance of the Study 14
1.5 Research Methodology 15
1.5.1 Rationale for the qualitative-research method and case-study selections 18
1.5.2 Data-collection strategy 19
1.5.3 Data analysis 20
1.6 Structure of the Dissertation 21
1.7 Stages 21
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 25
2.1 The Current Theoretical and Conceptual Framework of International Relations 25
2.2 Realism 29
2.2.1 Theories of realism and development 29
2.2.2 Weaknesses of realism in Chinese–Turkish relations 38
2.3 Liberalism 47
2.3.1 Theories of liberalism and development 47
2.3.2 Weaknesses of liberalism in Chinese–Turkish relations 52
2.4 Constructivism 54
2.4.1 Theories of constructivism and development 54
2.4.2 Weaknesses of constructivism in Chinese–Turkish relations 60
2.5 Theoretical Foundation of this Dissertation: Neoclassical Realism 67
2.6 Neoclassical Realism Typology and its Core Assumptions 73
2.6.1 The primacy of the conflict group 74
2.6.2 The nature of international politics is anarchic 75
2.6.3 The primacy of power 75
2.6.4 Confined rationality 76
2.6.5 Ontological and epistemological flexibility and complexity 76
2.7 Application of Neoclassical Realism Toward Turkish – Chinese Relations. 78
2.8 Foreign-policy making: Two-level games. 83
2.8.1 Two-level games 83
2.8.2 A case study of two-level games: Xinjiang issues 88
2.8.3 Beijing and Ankara's diplomatic relations 90
2.9 Theoretical framework 99
CHAPTER THREE TURKEY’S STRATEGIC POSITION IN REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS: FROM THE EU TO THE SCO? 101
3.1 The Process of Turkey’s Application to the European Union 102
3.1.1 Turkey’s pursuit of EU membership 105
3.1.2 Turkey–EU-27 trade relations 113
3.1.3 Obstacles to Turkish EU membership 114
3.2 Turkey’s Alternative: Shanghai Cooperation Organization 121
3.2.1 The Shanghai Corporation Organization: A portrait 121
3.2.2 One organization—Many implications 123
3.2.3 Turkey’s economic and cultural relations with the SCO 126
3.2.4 Turkey’s SCO trade relations 131
CHAPTER FOUR TURKEY’S STRATEGIC GOALS TOWARD THE CHINA AND SCO: AN INTRODUCTION 135
4.1 Overview of the Modern Turkish – Chinese Relations, 1971–present 137
4.2 Turkey’s Selected Policy Concerns Toward China 142
4.2.1 Chinese–Turkish new dialogues on political relations 145
4.2.2 Chinese–Turkish new dialogues on economic relations 148
4.2.3 Trade imbalance 155
4.3 Turkish – ChineseNew Dialogues on Social and Cultural Relations 164
4.4 Turkish – Chinese New Dialogues on Security Relations 169
4.5 Reconfigured Geopolitics 176
CHAPTER FIVE TURKEY’S BLUEPRINTS OF JOINING THE SCO 181
5.1 Turkey’s Pursuit of “SCO Membership” 185
5.2 Turkey–Central Asian Trade Relations 195
5.3 Turkey’s Policy Toward Central Asia 197
5.4 Russian Perspectives on Turkey in the SCO 200
5.5 Challenges for Turkish SCO Membership 205
5.6 Turkey’s Future in the SCO 210
5.7 Dialogues Between Turkey and China 212
5.8 Chapter Summary 217
CHAPTER SIX THE POSSIBILITY OF A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN TURKEY AND CHINA 225
6.1 Key Issues Concerning Turkish – Chinese Relations 225
6.1.1 China and Turkey’s Uyghurs/Xinjiang question 225
6.1.2 China and Turkey’s geopolitical issues 229
6.1.3 Turkey’s imbalance of trade with China 233
6.2 Turkish – Chinese Strategic Partnerships on a New Silk Road Renaissance 235
6.2.1 Energy 238
6.2.2 Infrastructural construction 238
6.2.3 Financial cooperation 239
6.2.4 Technology research and development and transfer 239
6.2.5 Tourism 240
6.2.6 Strategic partnerships benefits for China 241
6.2.7 Strategic partnership benefits for Turkey 245
6.3. Summary of Turkish – Chinese Strategic Possibilities 249
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POSSIBLE PROJECTS 253
7.1. Research Findings 253
7.2 Policy Recommendations for Turkish – Chinese Policymakers of Joint Projects 257
7.3 Future Studies Projects 262
REFERENCES 263


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(II) Periodicals
Altay Atlı, 2012, “The Future of Turkey’s Relations with China,” Turkish Review, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 96–101.
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Çolakoğlu, Selçuk, 2013.4, “Turkey–China Relations: Rising Partnership.” Orsam, Ortadogu Analiz, Vol. 5. No, 52, p. 42.
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Ekrem, Nuraniye Hidayet, 2006.5, “Uluslararası Af Örgütü’nün Yeni Çin Raporu ve Uygurlar” [“The Latest China Report of Amnesty International and Uyghurs”], Doğu Türkistan’ın Sesi, Vol. 23, No. 66, pp. 53–54.
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“İsa Yusuf Alptekin Received by Turkish President,” East Turkestan Information Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1992.3, http://caccp
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İşeri, Emre, 2013, “Trading with a Virtual Neighbor: Mongolia in Turkey’s New Foreign Economic Policy in a Polycentric World,” Bilge Strateji, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 45–59.
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Kuloğlu, A., 2007, “Geleceğin güç odağı Çin ve bu ülkenin Türkiye ile olan ilişkileri” [“China, the Power Center of the Future, and the Relations of this Country with Turkey”]. Global Strateji, Vol. 3, No. 11, pp. 49–57.
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Lin, Christina, “China’s Persian Gulf Strategy: Israel and a Nuclearizing Iran 2009,” 2009.10.22, China Brief, Vol. 9, No. 21.
Lin, Christina, 2010.7, “China and the North Korea–Iran Nuclear Axis,” Asian Conflict Report.
Lin, Christina, 2010.3, “China, Iran, and North Korea: A Triangular Strategic Alliance,” Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 14, No. 1.
Liu, Shaochun, 2006, “Zhidu Chuangxin Zhiwo Zhongguo Heping Jueqi” [Economic and Political Reform Supports China’s Peaceful Rise”], Huanghe keji daxue xuebao [Journal of Huanghe Science and Technology University] Vol. 8, pp. 60–63.
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“Türkiye-Çin İlişkileri: Tek Taraflı Aşk mı?” [“Turkey–China Relations: Unilateral Love?”], 2012.9, Ortadoğu Analiz [Middle East Analysis], Vol. 4, No. 45, p. 53–66.
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(III) Conference Papers
Çolakoğlu, Selçuk, 2008.11.9, “The Turkic Brotherhood Policy and Its Effects on Globalization Process in Central Asia” paper presented at the International Seminar on Globalization and Eurasia, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
Dellios, Rosita, and Nadir Kemal Yılmaz, 2008.10, “Sino-Turkish Relations in a Globalizing Asia Pacific,” paper for Bond University, Australia, No. 24.
Hsiang, J. C., 2004.3.15, “Anarchy, Hierarchy, and Actio Popularis: An International Governance Perspective,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Montreal, Canada.
Juneau, T., 2010, “Neoclassical Realist Strategic Analysis: A Statement,” paper presented at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, European Consortium on Political Research, Graduate Student Conference, Dublin, Ireland.
Kartal, B., and Ç. Sofyalıoğlu, 2011.10.15, “Türkiye’deki gençliğin Şanghay i̇şbirliği Örgütüne yönelik tutumuna pazarlama perspektifiyle bakış” [“A Look at the Perceptions of the Turkish Youth towards Shanghai Cooperation Organization from a Marketing Perspective”], paper presented at the International Conference On Eurasian Economies, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
Lirong, M., 2012.10.15, “The Advantages, Characteristics, Significances of Chinese Public and Cultural Diplomacy towards Turkey,” paper presented at the international conference of the Asian Studies Center, Istanbul, Turkey.
Mate, R., 2009.1.15, “NATO of the East? An International Relations Analysis of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization,” paper presented at the 67th annual conference of the Midwestern Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Wu, C. T., 2006.5.15, “Political and Economic Potential of China,” paper presented to the First International Turkish Asian Congress, Istanbul, Turkey.
(IV) Documents
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Çolakoğlu, Selçuk, 2010, “Turkey and China: Seeking a Sustainable Partnership,” Brief No. 41, http://setadc.org/pdfs/SETA_Policy
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Jurgelevicius, Arturas, 2010.5.20, “Friendship of Interests: Turkey and China” Wise Men Center for Strategic Studies.
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Tocci, N., H. J. Barkey, N. Oultchenko, H. Bagci, S. Kardas, and F. Heisbourg, 2003, “Turkey’s Strategic Future,” ESF Working Paper No. 13. Brussels, Belgium: European Security Forum.
Ülgen, Sinan, 2010.12, “A Place in the Sun or Fifteen Minutes of Fame? Understanding Turkey’s New Foreign Policy,” Carnegie Papers, Carnegie Europe, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, No. 1, pp. 9–11.
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Zainal, Z., 2007, “Case Study as a Research Method,” Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development, University Teknologi Malaysia, Jurnal Kemenusian, bil. 9.
(V) Newspapers
Akkan, F., and F. Seferov, 2013.1.31, “Russia Likely to Welcome Turkish Bid for Shanghai Membership,” Today’s Zaman, http://www.todayszaman.com/news-305746-russia-likely-to
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Alpay, Şahin. 2013.11.3, “Will Turkey Quit the West?” Today’s Zaman, http://www.todayszaman.com/columnists/sahin-alpay
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Ash, T. G., 2012, “Turkey Swing State for Europe Like China for World,” Today’s Zaman, http://www.todayszaman.com/news
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Bacik, Gokhan, 2011.12.9, “Envisioning the Asia-Pacific Century: Turkey between the United States and China,” Today’s Zaman, http://www.todayszaman.com/news-265222-envisioning-the
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Benetiz, Jorge, 2010.10.1, “US Questions Turkey’s Military Exercise with China,” Atlantic Council.
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Bozkurt, Abdullah, 2012.4.1 “China Seeks Further Engagement from Turkey in Xinjiang Region,” Today’s Zaman.
Bozkurt, Abdullah, 2012.4.1, “Turkey, China to Flesh Out Strategic Partnership during Erdoğan’s Visit,” Today’s Zaman, http://www.todayszaman.com/news-275985-turkey-china-to
-flesh-out-strategic-partnership-during-erdogans-visit.html.
Bozkurt, Abdullah, 2012.12, “Turkish Minister Says Reviving Silk Road Trade Route Remains Turkey’s Goal,” Today’s Zaman, http://www.todayszaman.com/newsDetail_getNewsById.action
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Gronholt-Pedersen, Jacob, 2013.5.12, “Myanmar Pipelines to Benefit China,” The Wall Street Journal.
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Gursel, Kadri, 2013.2.1, “Go All the Way West, and You’ll Reach Shanghai,” Hürriyet Daily News, http://www
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Ibrahimoglu, L. S., 2009.3.13, “Turkish Prosecutor Indicts Another 56 Suspects in Ergenekon Investigation,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol. 6, No. 49.
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.milliyet.com.tr/Dunya/SonDakika.aspx?aType=SonDakika
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“Turkey, China Mull $35 Bln Joint High-Speed Railway Project,” 2012.4.13, Today’s Zaman, http://www.todayszaman.com
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