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研究生:林軒嘉
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Chia Lin
論文名稱:資源回收減量之環境及健康效益評估
論文名稱(外文):Assessment of Environmental and Health Benefits of Material Recycling
指導教授:曾昭衡曾昭衡引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chaoheng Tseng
口試委員:胡憲倫黃顯凱
口試委員(外文):Allen H. HuH.K Huang
口試日期:2014-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:溫室氣體指標污染物ARCoB健康效益資源回收
外文關鍵詞:GHGsCAPsARCoBHealth BenefitsMaterial Recycly
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溫室氣體(Green House Gases, GHGs)及指標污染物(Criteria Air Pollutants, CAPs)此兩大領域一直為空氣資源管理研究中最重要的課題,我國也有分別針對CAPs與GHGs管理上推行各種政策。但CAPs與GHGs處理技術與政策推行中,如:節能、交通管理、固定污染源、再生能源等政策上,兩者經常會互相影響。因此不宜再將兩者決策分開推行,能同時兼顧到CAPs與GHGs減量之政策,才是現行台灣應該努力的方向。黃振寬(2007)以廢鋼鐵的回收,發現廢棄物之回收率與空氣污染及溫室氣體減量有密切的相關性。計算各種廢棄物回收所帶來的空氣污染減量,將可對企業社會責任,如污染減量及環境改善之績效,以量化後的健康效益,呈現企業更具體的環境績效。
先蒐集資源回收量與空氣污染減量之關係,並建構「空氣資源效益整合模型」,將回收減量成果以健康效益呈現,如延長平均壽命與節省醫療成本。再盤算資源回收,在製程階段所減量之能源、處理與生態成本,減量獲得之效益將與所投資成本相減,得社會成本。社會成本與健康效益加總,稱之為整體社會成本效益。
綜觀各案例在含生命效益上,最高效益均為紙類,不僅因PM10之減量在紙類回收上有最為顯著,且依國外文獻顯示,生命效益通常具有高於醫療效益百倍左右的效益,故在含生命效益上,紙類之效益遠高於其餘回收物。但在不含生命效益之各案例上,鋁類則具有最高值,因在GHG效益及能源節省效益上,鋁類具有遠大於其餘回收物之優勢,國外文獻亦指出,再生鋁使用能源僅需原生製鋁之5%能源。
分析比較Simapro7.3輸出之人類健康衝擊與ARCoB計算之健康效益,紙類效益均遠高於其餘回收物,其次為塑膠或玻璃,最次為鐵及鋁類。兩者在結果上,趨勢相似度頗高。


Green House Gases (GHGs) and Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs), The two major areas of research resources for the air management is the most important issue, and Taiwan also has implemented variety of policy respectively, for the CAPs and GHGs management. But when treatment technologies and policy were implemented for CAPs and GHGs, such as: energy saving, traffic management, stationary sources and renewable energy policies, these often influence each other. So that should not be implemented individually for decisions, it could also take into account the policy reductions of CAPs and GHGs, the direction is the moment of Taiwan should strive.
Huang (2007), found that relevant for air pollution, greenhouse gas reduction and waste recovery rate. Calculate the CAPs and GHGs reductions when various waste were recovered, it will be corporate social responsibility, such as pollution reduction and environmental performance improvement, using health benefits quantified, showing more specifically corporate environmental performance.
Firstly, to collect the relationship between resources recycling and reduction of air pollution, and to construct “Air Resources Co-Benefit Model”, in order to make reduction results of recycling showing as health benefits, such as extending the average life expectancy and saving medical costs. Then calculations the energy, treatment, environmental costs in the manufacturing process, due to the amount of recycling and saving. Reduction benefits minus the cost of investment, called social costs. Social costs and health benefits plus total, called cost-benefit society as a whole. The sum for social costs and health benefits, called society total cost-benefit.
Looking at each case containing life benefits, the best benefit is paper, not only due to the reduction of PM10 in the paper recycling has the most significant, but also according to the foreign literature, that life benefits typically has more than hundred times to medical benefits. Therefore, containing life benefits, the benefit of paper is the highest. But in each case without benefit of life, the aluminum is the highest, because at GHG and energy-saving benefits, aluminum is bester than other recycle material. Literature of foreign also pointed out that the use of renewable energy sources only accounting for 5% for aluminum of the energy of primary aluminum.
Analysis and comparison the Simapro7.3 output of the impact on human health and the health benefits of ARCoB assessment, paper benefits are much higher than the rest of recyclables, followed by plastic or glass, lowest is iron and aluminum. Both on the results, the trend is similarity.


摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iii
致 謝 v
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究流程 3
1.4 研究範圍 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 廢棄物資源回收背景與現況 5
2.1.1 廢棄物清理法演進 5
2.1.2 公告應回收廢棄物項目 5
2.1.3 資源回收四合一計畫 7
2.1.4 近年來資源回收量 8
2.2 生命週期評估(Life Cycle Assessment)與製程再生 9
2.2.1 製程生命週期 9
2.2.2 紙類 10
2.2.3 玻璃 12
2.2.4 鐵類 13
2.2.5 鋁類 15
2.2.6 塑膠 16
2.3 回收物之再生效益 18
2.4 空氣污染物 21
2.4.1 懸浮微粒(PM10)對健康之影響 23
2.4.2 二氧化氮(NO2)對健康之影響 24
2.4.3 二氧化硫(SO2)對健康之影響 24
2.4.4 ㄧ氧化碳(CO)對健康之影響 25
2.4.5 臭氧(O3)對健康之影響 26
2.4.6 國內外空氣污染與相對風險值 27
2.4.7 空氣污染物之量化健康效益 29
2.5 溫室效應 30
2.5.1 溫室氣體對健康的影響 30
2.5.2 溫室氣體量化效益 31
2.5.3 以災損估計溫室氣體 32
2.6 環境成本 32
2.6.1 環境成本之定義 32
2.6.2 環境外部性 32
2.6.3 環境外部成本內部化 33
2.6.4 成本效益比之計算 33
2.7 臭氧最大增量反應性MIR之理論基礎 35
2.8 空氣資源整合效益模型(ARCoB Model) 37
2.8.1 空氣污染與溫室氣體之共同效益 37
2.8.2 USEPA ABaCAS及BenMap 41
2.8.3 USEPA IES計劃 42
2.8.4 SIM Air計劃 43
2.8.5 空氣資源整合效益ARCoB模型 45
第三章 研究方法 48
3.1 研究架構與限制 48
3.1.1 空氣資源效益整合模型 48
3.1.2 研究限制與邊界 50
3.2 空氣資源效益整合模型(ARCoB Model)建置 52
3.2.1 RollBack Model 52
3.2.2 最大增量反應性(MIR) 57
3.2.3 空氣污染物與壽命關聯性 58
3.2.4 相對風險RR值與死亡歸因分率換算 58
3.2.5 台灣國民簡易生命表 61
3.2.6 統計生命價值與生命年價值 63
3.2.7 台灣衛生署健保局醫療支出統計 64
3.3 溫室氣體減量效益 65
3.3.1 災損 65
3.4 社會成本 66
3.4.1 空氣污染處理成本 68
3.4.2 預防(生態)成本 69
3.4.3 能源成本 71
3.4.4 執行資源回收投資成本 71
3.5 社會成本分析 73
第四章 結果與討論 75
4.1 單位資源回收之效益 75
4.1.1 各項效益估算 81
4.1.2 成本效益分析 86
4.2 案例一 全台資源回收之總效益 91
4.2.1 各項效益計算 91
4.2.2 成本效益分析 99
4.3 案例二 縣市資源回收之量化效益 101
4.3.1 各項效益估算 102
4.3.2 成本效益分析 108
4.4 案例三 企業社會責任之量化效益 114
4.4.1 各項效益估算 114
4.4.2 成本效益分析 116
4.5 案例四 家庭資源回收之量化效益 117
4.5.1 各項成本估算 117
4.5.2 效益成本分析 119
4.6 生命週期評估案例回收結果 120
4.6.1 生命週期評估全台資源回收結果 120
4.6.2 生命週期評估企業資源回收結果 122
第五章 結論與建議 124
5.1 結論 124
5.2 建議 125
參考文獻 126


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70.蕭代基、吳珮瑛、鄭蕙燕、錢玉蘭、溫麗琪,「環境保護之成本效益分析之理論與方法」,俊傑出版社,臺北,2002。
71.劉曉蘭,固定污染源空氣污染防制效率與成本結構之探討,碩士論文,國立台北大學資源管理研究所,台北,2001。
72.李育明、劉曉蘭、李怡蒼,「考量效率因素之固定污染源空氣污染防制成本估算」,2001年環境資源經濟管理暨系統分析學術研討會,中央研究院經濟研究所,2001。
73.行政院環境保護署,「固定污染源徵收硫氧化物及氮氧化物空氣污染防制費收費費率」,固定污染源暨空污費管制。
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