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研究生:栗濬傑
研究生(外文):Chun-Chieh Li
論文名稱:超音波於脂肪分布診斷與治療之應用
論文名稱(外文):Application of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis and Treatment for Fat Distribution
指導教授:莊賀喬莊賀喬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ho-Chiao Chuang
口試委員:江謝正雄葉秩光沈哲州
口試委員(外文):Cheng-Hsiung Chiang HsiehChih-Kuang YehChe-Chou Shen
口試日期:2014-07-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:製造科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:益生菌超音波高脂飲食誘導肥胖的小鼠微電腦斷層掃描脂肪貯積肥胖小鼠影像處理非侵入式
外文關鍵詞:LactobacillusUltrasoundHigh fat diet induced obesity miceMicroCTFat depositionObesityMiceImage processingNon-intrusive
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  • 被引用被引用:2
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第一部分 超音波結合益生菌對於肥胖症小鼠治療之研究
脂多糖(LPS)引起的慢性發炎可誘發肥胖。在動物實驗中,益生菌可以改變腸道菌相抑制肥胖,控制慢性發炎反應,亦會影響相關基因的表現。在先前的研究文獻中,高脂飲食(HFD)誘導的肥胖大鼠由於攝取益生菌抑制了副交感神經的活性。本研究利用益生菌結合超音波對高脂飲食誘導的肥胖小鼠進行8週以上的控制體重和脂肪貯積的評估。將C57BL/6J雄鼠於治療期間隨機分為四組:(1)對照組(H)、(2)只服用益生菌(HB)、(3)只施打超音波(HU)、(4)益生菌結合超音波(HUB)。量測體重與體內微電腦斷層掃描的身體總脂肪量的變化,利用血清和組織病理切片來證實治療的效果。在第8週,與HU組(26.63±0.96%)和H組(32.62±5.03%)相比,HUB組(15.56±1.18%)體重下降最為顯著(p<0.05)。從微電腦斷層掃描的總脂肪減少量顯示,HUB組(69%)比起其他組別(HB:52%,HU:37%) 效果最為顯著(p<0.05)。除了附睾脂肪墊,皮下脂肪的減少在HUB組(340 μm)最顯著,與H組(1150 μm)、HB組(1060 μm)和H組(370 μm)相比,均有顯著性差異(p<0.05)。高脂飲食的小鼠進行8週實驗,結合益生菌和超音波可以加強減少體重、整體與局部的脂肪沉積的消除、脂肪細胞大小與血脂的降低。

第二部分 三維超音波局部脂肪墊成像用於全身體脂肪評估
本研究利用動物實驗評估全身體脂肪,其驗證的方法為應用超音波影像系統針對小鼠腹部脂肪墊進行量測,量測項目包含小鼠脂肪墊體積與厚度的測量以及三維影像的重建。本系統利用MATLAB程式整合影像處理,達到測量的目的。透過超音波影像系統擷取影像後,利用型態濾波器將原始影像分割成二值化影像,再計算量化結果和樣本比對的方法完成量測。本研究所提出的量測系統具有(1)非侵入式量測、(2)量測時間短、(3)準確度高等特性,對於脂肪評估有自動偵測的效果,減少人為操作所造成的誤差,以及達到自動判讀的量測目的。在進行動物實驗之前,先藉由石墨仿體模擬影像處理流程的方式去進行實驗。實驗結果測得實際與超音波量測體積之間的誤差為-0.4%,以上述之方法能夠達到快速判讀資料的目的。

Part 1 Combining Ultrasound and Probiotics Treatment for High Fat Diet Induced Obesity Mice
Chronic systemic inflammation, caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can induce obesity. In animal experiments, Lactobacillus can inhibit obesity which modifies gut microbiota, controls inflammation and affects the associated gene expression. In previous study in the literature, high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity was suppressed by Lactobacillus ingestion in rats due to the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerve activity. The present study evaluated the combined use of Lactobacillus and ultrasound (US) to control body weight and body fat deposition in HFD mice over an 8-week experimental period. C57BL male mice were received HFD during treatment and randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (H); (2) Lactobacillus alone (HB); (3) US alone (HU); (4) Lactobacillus combines with US (HUB). The changes of body weight were measured and the changes of total body fat volume were derived from in vivo microCT. Serum and histopathology were performed to clarify the effects of the combination treatment. At the 8th week, body weight was decreased significantly in the HUB (15.56±1.18%) group compared to the HU (26.63±0.96%) and H (32.62±5.03%) groups (p<0.05). The total body fat volume from microCT scan shows that the reductions in HUB group (69%) is more significant than other groups (HB: 52%, HU: 37%) (p<0.05). Instead of the epididymal fat pad, the reductions of subcutaneous fat were significant in the HUB (340 μm) than in the H (1150 μm), HB (1060 μm) and H (370 μm) groups (all p<0.05). Combination therapy with Lactobacillus and US can enhance the reduction of body weight, whole and local body fat deposition, adipocyte size and plasma lipid levels in HFD mice for 8 weeks experiments.

Part 2 Assessment of Whole Body Fat Composition in Mice using 3D Local Fat Pad Ultrasound Imaging
In this study, the whole body fat distribution was evaluated by high frequency ultrasound(US)imaging in animal experiments. An automatic, 3D fat detection method in US images were evaluated by MATLAB software. The property of the method is non-invasive, short measuring time and high accuracy. The measurement items include the measurement of fat pad volume, thickness, and 3D image reconstruction in phantom and mice. After capturing images by US imaging, the morphological filter was used to make original images into the binary images, and then calculate the quantitative results with pattern matching method to complete the measurement. Before the animal testing in progress, the graphite phantom approach to the experiment simulated was used to evaluate the efficiency of the imaging process method. The deviation of the experimental results between this method and actual value was about -0.4%. The method is possible to achieve rapid data processing for body fat distribution.

目 錄
第一部分
超音波結合益生菌對於肥胖症小鼠治療之研究

中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌 謝 vii
目 錄 ix
圖目錄 xi
表目錄 xii
第一章 緒論 2
1.1 肥胖簡介 2
1.2 局部消脂之方法 4
1.2.1 抽脂 4
1.2.1.1 動力抽脂 5
1.2.1.2 超音波輔助抽脂 6
1.2.1.3 雷射輔助抽脂 7
1.2.1.4 射頻輔助抽脂 7
1.2.2 溶脂 8
1.2.2.1 冷凍溶脂 8
1.2.2.2 超音波體外溶脂 8
1.3 超音波基本原理 9
1.4 益生菌 11
1.5 研究動機與目的 12
第二章 材料與方法 14
2.1 藥品與設備 14
2.2 小動物模型建立 15
2.2.1 益生菌製備 15
2.2.2 治療性超音波 15
2.2.3 動物實驗流程 15
2.3 體重評估 16
2.4 微電腦斷層掃描測量小鼠體內總脂肪量 16
2.5 病理組織切片 17
2.6 血清生化檢驗 17
第三章 實驗結果與討論 18
3.1 超音波結合益生菌於治療期間小鼠體重之變化 18
3.2 超音波結合益生菌對於飲食的影響 19
3.3 小鼠附睪脂肪墊之微電腦斷層掃描影像 20
3.4 超音波結合益生菌於治療後的小鼠體脂肪率 21
3.5 血清生化分析 22
3.6 小鼠脂肪及肝組織之病理切片分析 23
第四章 結論 27
第五章 參考文獻 28


圖目錄

圖1.1 美國成年人過重(BMI 25-29.9)與肥胖(BMI≧30)之統計 3
圖1.2 四代抽脂發展史 5
圖1.3 動力抽脂示意圖 6
圖1.4 超音波輔助抽脂之元件及示意圖 6
圖1.5 光纖雷射用管套 7
圖1.6 雙極射頻於脂肪內示意圖 8
圖1.7 超音波溶脂示意圖 9
圖2.1 治療流程示意圖 16
圖3.1 治療8週小鼠體重變化 18
圖3.2 小鼠食用高脂飼料所吸收之熱量 19
圖3.3 小鼠附睪脂肪墊之電腦斷層掃描影像 21
圖3.4 小鼠治療8週後之體脂肪率 22
圖3.5 小鼠附睪脂肪墊之200倍顯微影像 24
圖3.6 小鼠皮下脂肪之200倍顯微影像 25
圖3.7 小鼠皮下脂肪組織厚度顯微影像 25
圖3.8 小鼠肝臟組織之200倍顯微影像 26


表目錄

表3.1 小鼠治療8週後之血液檢測 23


目 錄
第二部分
三維超音波局部脂肪墊成像用於全身體脂肪評估

中文摘要 v
ABSTRACT vi
目 錄 xiii
圖目錄 xv
表目錄 xvi
第一章 緒論 36
1.1 前言 36
1.2 超音波的基本原理 36
1.3 高頻超音波影像系統 37
1.4 體脂肪率計算與量測 41
1.5 研究動機與目的 43
第二章 影像處理方法及研究步驟 44
2.1 脂肪之高頻超音波影像 44
2.2 影像處理 45
2.2.1 灰階影像 46
2.2.2 直方圖等化 46
2.2.3 型態濾波 47
2.2.4 影像擷取 50
2.3 體積量化計算 50
2.4 相關係數 51
2.5 三維體積重建 51
第三章 實驗結果與討論 53
3.1 石墨仿體模擬脂肪量化 53
3.2 石墨仿體三維體積重建 54
3.3 實際脂肪墊與超音波影像量化之準確度 55
3.4 小鼠附睪脂肪墊與整體脂肪之相關性 57
3.5 皮下脂肪與附睪脂肪墊之關係 58
3.6 附睪脂肪墊與體脂肪率之關係 59
3.7 附睪脂肪墊三維體積重建 60
第四章 結論 62
第五章 參考文獻 63


圖目錄

圖1.1 腫瘤B-mode影像 38
圖1.2 B-mode及 M-mode 超音波影像 39
圖1.3 Color Doppler-mode 超音波影像 40
圖1.4 對比劑注入體內Contrast-mode影像 40
圖1.5 皮脂鉗 42
圖2.1 高頻超音波影像系統 44
圖2.2 高頻超音波影像系統擷取小鼠脂肪影像示意圖 45
圖2.3 影像處理流程圖 45
圖2.4 灰階亮度統計圖 46
圖2.5 型態學基本運算例子 48
圖2.6 型態濾波去除雜訊的應用 49
圖2.7 型態濾波處理步驟 50
圖2.8 擷取最大值區域部位影像 50
圖3.1 石墨仿體模擬脂肪量化的影像處理流程 53
圖3.2 石墨仿體三維體積重建影像 55
圖3.3 小鼠脂肪量化的影像處理流程 56
圖3.4 各種閥值對於小鼠脂肪量化的影響 56
圖3.5 小鼠附睪脂肪墊三維體積重建影像 61


表目錄

表1.1 美國運動協會制定身體脂肪百分比標準 41
表3.1 石墨仿體實際值與量化值的平均結果 54
表3.2 小鼠脂肪墊與量化結果 57
表3.3 小鼠脂肪墊與整體脂肪之相關性 58
表3.4 皮下脂肪與附睪脂肪墊重量之關係 59
表3.5 附睪脂肪墊重量與體脂肪率之關係 60

第一部分 超音波結合益生菌對於肥胖症小鼠治療之研究
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第二部分 三維超音波局部脂肪墊成像用於全身體脂肪評估
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[2]盧聖介,包覆空氣微脂體於高頻超音波影像與聲學非線性質研究與應用,碩士論文,國立清華大學生醫工程與環境科學研究所,新竹,2008。
[3]王鴻偉,使用三倍頻發射相位法對比劑諧波影像,碩士論文,國立臺灣科技大學電機工程,臺北,2008。
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[11]Foster F. S., et al., "In vivo imaging of embryonic development in the mouse eye by ultrasound biomicroscopy," Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 44(6), 2003, pp. 2361-6.
[12]陳泓儒,利用超音波技術建立燒傷疤痕評估系統,碩士論文,國立成功大學醫學工程研究所,臺南,2005。
[13]Natalya R., "Physical stimuli-responsive polymeric micelles for anti-cancer drug delivery," Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 32, No. 8-9, 2007, pp. 962-990.
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[34]簡宏恩,以軟/硬體共設計方式實現即時監控系統,碩士論文,國立雲林科技大學電子工程研究所,雲林,2004。

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