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研究生:黃柄晟
研究生(外文):Ping-Cheng Hwang
論文名稱:排氣通孔之於反應型消音器模擬與分析
論文名稱(外文):The Analysis and Simulation of Reactive Mufflers with Perforations
指導教授:許華倚
指導教授(外文):Hua-Yi Hsu
口試委員:周永泰林震
口試委員(外文):Jeen Lin
口試日期:2014-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:精密機構設計產業研發碩士專班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:計算流體力學消音器排氣噪音分析
外文關鍵詞:CFDmufflerexhaust noise
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本篇研究主要是探討引擎排放出之氣體流經由排氣管尾段消音器內部之通孔所引發之噪音分析,以及其內部壓力及流速的探討,並搭配不同的通孔面積比及陣列,探討其影響。
利用電腦輔助計算軟體來模擬排氣系統內消音器之流場,使用不可壓縮流的Navier-Stokes方程式,求解三維穩態複雜模型,針對高雷諾數的紊流情況,利用Standard k-ε模型,搭配使用RANS(Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations)描述流場狀態,求解的方法則是採用SIMPLE(Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations)演算法,利用聲音模型:FW-H(Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model)模型和BNS(Broadband Noise Source Model)模型計算出流場及流場外的聲壓分布。
首先建立消音器內部流場模型,之後建構網格並設定邊界條件及求解方法,將結果最後用後處理匯出圖片及相關分析資料。


The main objective of this work is to analyze the gas flowing through the car’s exhausting system, the noise and the impulse noise caused by the separators of the muffler. By investigating the pressure and velocity field with different model of perforations numbers on separators.
We use the CFD tool to simulate the exhausting system and the flow field of the muffler. By calculating Navier-Stokes equations to solve this three-dimensional incompressible steady flow. This high Reynold number flow is described as the RANS state of turbulence model. The Standard k-ε model is applied to solve this turbulent flow. The aerodynamically caused noise model used here are: FW-H model and the BNS model which separately show the flow field and the sound pressure distribution of the flow in unsteady state and steady state.
First step is create geometry of the flow field inside the muffler, then import the geometry into CFD. Meshing the geometry and set up boundary conditions, solution method. Lay out the figures and data.


摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 序論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 5
1.3 排氣管介紹 6
1.3.1 排氣歧管 7
1.3.2 排氣管前管 7
1.3.3 排氣管尾管 9
第二章 控制方程式與數值方法 11
2.1 統御方程式 11
2.1.1 質量守恆定律 11
2.1.2 動量守恆定律 13
2.2 名詞解釋 14
2.2.1 雷諾數(Reynold’s Number) 14
2.2.2 紊流強度(Intensity of Turbulence) 15
2.2.3 分貝(Decibel, dB) 15
2.3 數值方法 15
2.3.1 有限差分法(Finite Difference Method, FDM) 16
2.3.2 有限元素法(Finite Element Method, FEM) 16
2.3.3 有限體積法(Finite Volume Method, FVM) 16
2.4 通用傳輸方程式:空間離散法 18
2.4.1 一階上風法(First-Order Upwind Scheme) 18
2.4.2 二階上風法(Second-Order Upwind Scheme) 19
2.4.3 Power-Law法(Power-Low Scheme) 19
2.4.4 QUICK法則 20
2.5 壓力-速度耦合計算方法 20
2.5.1 SIMPLE演算法則 20
2.6 紊流數值模擬模型 22
2.6.1 雷諾平均法(Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS) 23
2.6.2 標準k-ε雙方程式模型 24
2.6.3 標準k-ε模型的定義 24
2.6.4 標準k-ε模型的控制方程組及適用性 26
2.7 氣動聲學 27
2.7.1 Lighthill 聲學類比理論 27
2.7.2 FW-H模型(Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model) 28
2.7.3 寬頻帶噪音源模型(Broadband Noise Source Model) 29
第三章 模擬過程與結果討論 30
3.1 穩態反應型消音器模擬 30
3.2 不同內隔板通孔數搭配之模擬 32
3.2.1 不同內隔板通孔數搭配模擬之總壓圖 34
3.2.2 不同內隔板通孔數搭配模擬之速度圖 40
3.2.3 不同內隔板通孔數搭配模擬之速度向量 45
3.2.4 不同內隔板通孔數搭配模擬之分貝圖 47
3.3 輸入管增加通孔之模擬 53
3.3.1 輸入管增加通孔模擬之總壓圖 54
3.3.2 輸入管增加通孔模擬之速度圖 59
3.3.3 輸入管增加通孔模擬之速度向量 65
3.3.4 輸入管增加通孔模擬之分貝圖 67
3.4 模擬結果與討論 73
第四章 結論與未來展望 79
4.1 結論 79
4.1.1 不同內隔板通孔數搭配之模擬 79
4.1.2 輸入管增加通孔之模擬 80
4.2 未來展望 80
參考文獻 82


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