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研究生:董育廷
研究生(外文):Michelle Tung
論文名稱:人之何以為人?: 從以撒艾斯莫夫和菲利普迪克的機械人與人工智慧尋求解答
論文名稱(外文):What Is It to Be Human?:Robots and Artificial Intelligence in the Works of Isaac Asimov and Philip K. Dick
指導教授:柯萊恩柯萊恩引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kurt Cline
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:應用英文系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:科幻小說奇圈智能人工智慧同情賽伯格融合政治
外文關鍵詞:science fictionStrange Loopintelligenceempathyartificial intelligenceartificial humanitycyborgaffinity politics
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本研究旨在探究一個自科學怪人 Frankenstein以來一直被討論的問題: 人之何以為人?是智慧嗎?是同理心嗎?是道德規範或另有其他答案?科幻小說是一個特殊的文體,它提供了我們異於現實的場域以及誇飾的現象,於此,我們能用一個不同的角度來尋求事情的本質和意義。本研究藉以撒 艾斯莫夫及及菲利普 迪克二位作者的未來世界文本針對上述問題分別辯証。本研究共有四個部份: 第一部份著重在比較二位作者如何描繪他們的機械人角色,並剖析他們背後對未來世界的信念或憂慮。第二部份將用用道格拉斯侯世雄的奇圈理論(Strange Loop)來分析艾斯莫夫的…That Though Art Mindful of Him和迪克的The Defenders中機械人的智慧。在二位作者的筆下,機械人終究會在智能上成為我們的族親。第三部份以迪克的Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?繼續探討是否如迪克所言,人和機械人之間最大的區別在於我們有同理心,而機械人沒有。在Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?裡,迪克創造了一系列的角色-從最沒人性的人類到最有人性的機械人-帶領讀者去思考人性、同理心以及道德觀之間的關聯。最後,將使用艾斯莫夫的The Bicentennial Man來分析到底什麼原因致使一個機械人費盡二百年的心力,奮力追求人類的身份認同。透過主角Andrew Martin的追尋,我們得以更接近本研究所提-人之何以為人?一問題的答案。
在歷史上,人們用排除、分階級為手段來異化其他種族階層及社會團體,在Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?和The Bicentennial Man中,人類想盡辦法要在人和機械人之間建立牢不可摧的界限,以彰顯自己的不同。此二書中的機械人皆處於一個被排除的窘境- 剝削和壓制從人類社會複製到後人類的社會中。唐娜哈洛威在她的賽伯格宣言中提倡一種族群融合的意象,由這意象我們看見一個突破的契機-生物體和人造體的之間的區隔消彌,在新人道主義的天穹下,上帝所創造的人以及人類發明的智慧體皆有立足之地。


This thesis considers the question that has long been asked since Frankenstein. What is it to be human? Is it intelligence? Is it empathy? Is it moral standard or something else? Science Fiction is a unique genre that provides us with alternative scenarios and exaggerated phenomenona through which we can search the meanings and essence of being human from a different perspective. Within the future context in Isaac Asimov and Philip K. Dick’s works, I am going to discuss the above questions respectively. In the first part, I will draw a comparison between Asimov and Dick’s robots, examining the way they portray their robot characters and discussing the authors’ faith or worries toward the human-robot society. In the second part, I will use Douglas Hofstadter’s Strange Loop theory to locate robot intelligence in both Asimov’s …That Though Art Mindful of Him and Dick’s The Defenders. Through the two authors’ imagination, robots will inevitably share our intellectual kinship. Moving on with Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? in the third part, I will interrogate whether empathy distinguishes men from machines as Dick suggests. Dick creates a series of characters from the most inhuman man to the most human robot which lead the readers to ponder the link between empathy, moral standard and humanity. In the last part, I will use Asimov’s The Bicentennial Man to search for the cause which leads the robot protagonist Andrew Martin to a two-hundred-year pursuit of human identity. Through Andrew’s journey, we can discover the answer to the initial question: What is it to be human?

Exclusion and classification are often used to estrange other race, class or social groups in the human history. In both Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and The Bicentennial Man, humans strive to secure the power hierarchy by creating rigid boundaries to differentiate themselves from robots. The robot characters in both stories suffer from social exclusion- exploitation and oppression are copied to posthuman society. Donna Haraway proposes a concept of “affinity” in her famous Cyborg Manifesto, she claims the possibility of a breakthrough in which the differences between organic and artificial can be breached, allowing both the born and the made to find their shelter in artificial humanity.


Table of Content
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract iii
Table of Content v
Introduction 1
A Cyborg Vision 1
Science Fiction, a Legitimate Literary Genre 4
From Thinking and Being to A.I. and ALife 8
Rise of Robots 9
Outline 11

Chapter One Robots, Asimov and Dick 13
1.1 Isaac Asimov-The Edison of Science Fiction 13
1.2 Philip K. Dick -The Shakespeare of Science Fiction 22

Chapter Two Intelligence and Strange Loops 27
2.1 What is Intelligence 27
2.2 The Turing Test 28
2.3 The Self Referential Strange Loops 32

Chapter Three Trace of Intelligence- Strange Loops in Robots 37
3.1 Strange Loops in PKD’s Robots 37
3.2 Strange Loops in Asimov’s Robots 42

Chapter Four What is it to be human? 51
4.1 Empathy, Morality and the Unbreakable Boundaries in
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? 51

Chapter Five The Treasure of Humanity? 71
5.1 Authenticity, Freedom, Existentialism in
The Bicentennial Man 71
5.2 The Aesthetic of Death 82
5.3 The Real Motif 86

Conclusion 89

Works Cited 98

Works Consulted 105

Appendix
A Robots in Myth, Folklore and Legend 107
B Robots in Science Fiction 111


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