跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.204.169.230) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/03/04 09:54
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:洪安怡
研究生(外文):An-Yi Hung
論文名稱:青少年暴力犯對於情緒刺激之非典型神經處理歷程
論文名稱(外文):Atypical neural processing of emotional stimuli in juvenile offenders
指導教授:鄭雅薇鄭雅薇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ya-Wei Cheng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:神經科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:心理病態疼痛同理心冷酷無情行為疾患衝動性恐懼性語音腦電波不匹配負波
外文關鍵詞:psychopathypain empathycallous-unemotionalconduct disorderimpulsivityfearful voiceEEGMMN
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:259
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:11
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
同理心功能失衡是冷血型少年暴力犯的主要特質,也是引發其暴力行為的重要因
素。這個族群對於他人的痛苦反應冷漠,並同時表現衝動及預謀型的暴力行為。
覺察他人的疼痛反應被視為探討同理心神經與認知機制的有效實驗方法,此腦電
波研究即在探討少年暴力犯和對照組疼痛同理心的神經反應差異。結果顯示少年
暴力犯的異常同理心反應和非典型的神經機制表現相關。在處理因意外而引發疼
痛的圖片時,低冷血型暴力犯在同理心的後期處理階段(由上而下的調控)比正常
人組反應弱,主要由較小的晚期正電位(LPP)反應得知,而高冷血型暴力犯則在前
後期都比正常人組反應弱,分別由較小的前期 N120 和後期 LPP 電位反應來解釋;此外,在處理第三者意圖造成疼痛的圖片時,高冷血型暴力犯卻呈現和正常青少
年類似的 LPP 電位反應,這項發現說明高冷血型暴力犯者雖無法感同身受他人的
疼痛反應,並不表示他們無法理解傷害行為所造成的結果。青少年的衝動型暴力
行為也可能源於對負面情緒刺激的衝動反應,因此,接續的腦電波研究進一步測
量少年暴力犯和對照組在處理情緒語音時所產生的不匹配波 MMN (Mismatch
Negativity)差異。本實驗利用腦電波儀記錄聽覺 oddball paradigm 的資料,聽覺刺激分兩組:一組是由傷心、恐懼和中性的情緒所錄製的 dada 聲;另一組是分別由前三種情緒語音轉製成的非情緒性 dada 聲,受試者在聽聲音的同時只需觀看並注意僅有字幕的無聲影片。結果顯示少年暴力犯在處理負面情緒語音時所產生 MMN 電位差異比對照組所產生的大,且此差異性和受試者的衝動傾向呈正相
關,故推測少年暴力犯在較低階、不需注意力的層次上就已經以非典型的方式處
理情緒語音訊息。
Empathy dysfunction is one of the critical characteristics of juvenile offenders with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and has been assumed to have a facilitating influence on aggressive behavior. Youths with CU traits are found to be insensitive to distressful cues and may show both reactive and proactive aggression. The perception of others’ pain constitutes an ecologically valid paradigm to investigate the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved in empathy. The current event-related potential (ERP) study targeted young offenders with CU traits and control adolescents to measure their neural response to empathy-eliciting painful stimuli. The results demonstrated selective impairment in components of empathy associated with specific abnormal neural dynamics in young offenders. While adolescents with low CU traits were impaired only in late processing (top-down regulation) of empathy-eliciting stimuli, adolescents with high CU traits were impaired in both early arousal and late cognitive evaluation. Importantly, offenders with HCU showed no deficits in the perception of
intentionality, as indicated by the normal late positive potential (LPP) responses to social situations where an individual was intentionally harmed. Reactive aggression in juvenile offenders can also arise from impulsive reactivity to distressful cues. In the second study, we examined the emotional reactivity to distressful voices in young offenders using an emotional Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm. MMN in response to neutrally, sadly and fearfully spoken meaningless syllables ‘dada’, as well as acoustically matched nonvocal sounds were recorded in a passive oddball paradigm. The participants were required to watch a silent movie with subtitles while listening to the auditory stimuli. The results showed increased difference in MMN between fearful and sad deviant in young offenders, and correlation of this phenomenon with high impulsive tendencies. The finding suggests that young offenders may process distressful voices in an atypical fashion already at the pre-attentive level.
CHINESE ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT .............................................................................................. iii
1 REVIEW OF LITERATURES ............................................................................... 1
1.1 Youths with psychopathic/callous-unemotional traits ................................. 1
1.2 Empathy and aggression .............................................................................. 2
1.3 Pain empathy ............................................................................................... 3
1.4 Empathy dysfunction in juvenile offenders ................................................. 5
1.5 Emotional reactivity in juvenile offenders ...................................................6
1.6 Emotional Mismatch Negativity (MMN) .................................................... 7
2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND & PURPOSES ..................................................... 9
3 EXPERIMENT 1: Dissociation between affective sharing and emotion
understanding in juvenile psychopathy....................................................................... 11
3.1 Research question and hypothesis.............................................................. 11
3.2 Materials and methods .............................................................................. 12
3.3 Results........................................................................................................ 22
3.4 Summary..................................................................................................... 34
4 EXPERIMENT 2: Atypical mismatch negativity to distressful voices associated
with conduct disorder symptoms................................................................................. 34
4.1 Research question and hypothesis.............................................................. 34
4.2 Materials and methods .............................................................................. 35
4.3 Results........................................................................................................ 43
4.4 Summary..................................................................................................... 55
5 GENERAL DISCUSSION................................................................................... 56
5.1 Main findings and discussion of experiment 1........................................... 57
5.2 Main findings and discussion of experiment 2........................................... 63
5.3 Limitations................................................................................................. 68
5.4 Implications and further research............................................................... 70
6 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................... 71
7 REFERENCES...................................................................................................... 73
8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..................................................................................... 95

TABLES AND FIGURES
Table 1: Demographic characteristics, dispositional measures, subjective rating, and pressure pain threshold of the study participants…………………………………….23
Table 2: Demographic and dispositional measures…………………………………..45 Table 3: Mean± SE amplitudes and latencies of MMN and P3a…………………….51
Figure 1: The paradigm structure of the event-related potential recordings………...20
Figure 2: Cortical-evoked responses to perceiving individuals in pain versus no pain accidentally caused (pain-self, red, vs. no pain-self, blue) in the controls (CTR) versus the group with low callous–unemotional traits (LCU) versus the group with high callous–unemotional traits (HCU) traits……………………………………………..26
Figure 3: Cortical-evoked responses to perceiving individuals intentionally hurt by another versus no pain in the interaction (pain-other, red, vs. no pain-other, blue) in the controls (CTR) versus the group with low callous–unemotional traits (LCU) versus the group with high callous–unemotional traits (HCU)………………………28
Figure 4: Correlations between the event-related potential response to the perception of stimuli depicting harm intentionally inflicted (social context) and psychopathic traits in the low callous–unemotional (LCU) and high callous–unemotional (HCU) groups collapsed together…………………………………………………………….30
Figure 5: Correlations between the event-related potential response to the perception of stimuli depicting harm intentionally inflicted (social context) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) in all three groups collapsed together. (a) Less negative-going deflections of frontal N120 were associated with higher pain thresholds. (b) Stronger frontal late-positive potentials (LPPs) were coupled with higher pain thresholds…...31
Figure 6: Correlations between the cortical responses to pain empathy and the subjective ratings of pain intensity in the LCU and the HCU group, respectively…..32
Figure 7: The physical characteristics of the stimuli (emotional syllables vs. nonvocal sounds). VOT: voice onset time……………………………………………………...39
Figure 8: MMN amplitudes to emotional syllables at the electrode cite Fz…………47
Figure 9: MMN amplitudes to nonvocal sounds matched spectrally with emotional syllables at the electrode cite Fz……………………………………………………...48
Figure 10: Grand average standard and deviant ERP waveforms for emotional syllables and nonvocal sounds in juvenile delinquents and controls………………...52
Figure 11: (a) The MMN scalp potential distributions. (b) The respective current source density (CSD) maps…………………………………………………………..53
Figure 12: Correlation between MMN amplitudes to fearful deviants and impulsive tendencies…………………………………………………………………………….55
Akitsuki Y. & Decety J. (2009). Social context and perceived agency affects empathy
for pain: An event-related fMRI investigation. NeuroImage, 47, 722-734.
Alain C., Woods D. L., & Knight R. T. (1998). A distributed cortical network for
auditory sensory memory in humans. Brain Research, 812, 23-37.
Alho K., Woods D. L., Algazi A., Knight R.T., & Näätänen R. (1994). Lesions of
frontal cortex diminish the auditory mismatch negativity. Electroencephalography &
Clinical Neurophysiology, 91, 353-362.
Belin P. & Grosbras M. H. (2010). Before speech: cerebral voice processing in infants,
Neuron, 65, 733-735.
Belin P., Zatorre R. J., Lafaille P., Ahad P., & Pike B. (2000). Nature, 403, 309-312.
Benuzzi, F., Lui F., Duzzi D., Nichelli P. & Porro, C. (2008). Does it look painful or
disgusting? Ask your parietal and cingulare cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 28,
923-931.
Bieri D., Reeve R. A., Champion, G. D., Addicoat L., & Ziegler, J. B. (1990). The
Faces Pain Scale for the self-assessment of the severity of pain experienced by
children: Development, initial validation, and preliminary investigation for ratio scale
properties. Pain, 41, 139-150.
Birbaumer N., Veit R., Lotze M., Erb M., Hermann C., Grodd W. & Flor H. (2005).
73

Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy: A functional magnetic resonance imaging
study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 799-805.
Blair K. S., Smith B. W., Mitchell D. G., Morton J., Vythilingam M., Pessoa L., et al.
(2007). Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion. NeuroImage,
35, 430-440.
Blair R. J. (1995). A cognitive developmental approach to mortality: Investigating the
psychopath. Cognition, 57, 1-29.
Blair R. J. (2003). Facial expressions, their communicatory functions and
neuro-cognitive substrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences, 358, 561-572.
Blair R. J. (2005). Responding to the emotions of others: Dissociating forms of
empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and
Cognition, 14, 698-718.
Blair R. J., Colledge E., Murray L., & Mitchell D. G. (2001). A selective impairment
in the processing of sad and fearful expressions in children with psychopathic
tendencies. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 491-498.
Blair R. J. & Blair K. S. (2009). Empathy, morality, and social convention: Evidence
from the study of psychopathy and other psychiatric disorders. In J. Decety & W.
Ickes (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 139-152). Cambridge: MIT
74

Press.
Blair R. J. (2013). The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths. Nature Review
Neuroscience, 14, 786-799.
Boersma P. (2001) Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Glot
International, 5, 341-345.
Cacioppo J. T. & Gardner W. L. (1999). Emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 50,
191-214.
Campbell S. B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and
developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Carretie L., Hinojosa J. A., Martin-Loeches M., Mercado F., & Tapia M. (2004).
Automatic attention to emotional stimuli: Neural correlates. Human Brain Mapping,
22, 290-299.
Cheng Y., Chen C., Lin C. P., Chou K. H., & Decety J. (2010). Love hurts: An fMRI
study. NeuroImage, 51, 923-929.
Cheng Y., Yang C. Y., Lin C. P., Lee P. L., & Decety J. (2008). The perception of pain
in others suppresses somatosensory oscillations: A magnetoencephalography study.
NeuroImage, 40, 1833-1840.
Cheng Y., Lee S. Y., Chen H. Y., Wang P. Y., & Decety J. (2012). Voice and emotion
processing in the human neonatal brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2012, 24,
75

1411-1419.
Cleckley H. M. (1976). The mask of sanity: An attempt to clarify some issues about
the so-called psychopathic personality. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Cooke D. J. & Michie C. (1999). Psychopathy across cultures: North America and
Scotland compared. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 58-68.
Cosi S., Hernandez-Martinez C., Canals J., & Vigil-Colet A. (2011). Impulsivity and
internalizing disorders in childhood. Psychiatry Research, 190, 342-347.
Crottaz-Herbette S. & Menon V. (2006) Where and when the anterior cingulate cortex
modulates attentional response: combined fMRI and ERP evidence. Journal of
Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 766-780.
Cuthbert B. N., Schupp H. T., Bradley M. M., Birbaumer N., & Lang P. J. (2000)
Brain potentials in affective picture processing: Covariation with autonomic arousal
and affective report. Biological Psychology, 52, 95-111.
Dadds M. R., El Masry Y., Wimalaweera S., & Guastella A. J. (2008). Reduced eye
gaze explains ‘‘fear blindness’’ in childhood psychopathic traits. J Am Acad Child
Adolesc Psychiatry, 47, 455-463.
Davidson R. J., Putnam K. M., & Larson C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural
circuitry of emotion regulation – A possible prelude to violence. Science, 289,
591-594.
76

Davis M. H. (1996). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Madison, WI:
Westview Press.
Day A., Casey S., & Gerace A. (2010). Interventions to improve empathy awareness
in sexual and violent offenders: conceptual, empirical, and clinical issues. Aggression
and Violent Behavior, 15, 201-208.
Decety J. (2010a). To what extent is the experience of empathy mediated by shared
neural circuits? Emotion Review, 2, 204-207.
Decety J. (2010b). The neurodevelopment of empathy in humans. Developmental
Neuroscience, 32, 257-267.
Decety J. (2011). Dissecting the neural mechanisms mediating empathy. Emotion
Review, 3, 92-108.
Decety J. & Jackson P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy.
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71-100.
Decety J. & Meyer M. (2008). From emotion resonance to empathic understanding: A
social developmental neuroscience account. Development and psychopathology, 20,
1053-1080.
Decety J., Michalska K. J., & Akitsuki Y. (2008). Who caused the pain? An fMRI
investigation of empathy and intentionality in children. Neuropsychologia, 46,
2607-2614.
77

Decety J., Michalska K. J., Akitsuki Y., & Lahey B. B. (2009). Atypical empathic
responses in adolescents with aggressive conduct disorder: a functional MRI
investigation. Biological psychology, 80, 203-211.
Decety J. & Michalska, K. J. (2010). Neurodevelopmental changes in the circuit
underlying empathy and sympathy from childhood to adulthood. Developmental
Science, 13, 886-899.
Decety J., Michalska K. J., & Kinzler K. D. (2011). The developmental neuroscience
of moral sensitivity. Emotion Review, 3, 305-307.
Decety J., Yang C. Y., & Cheng Y. (2010). Physicians down-regulate their pain
empathy response: An event-related brain potential study. NeuroImage, 50,
1676-1682.
Dennis T. A. & Hajcak G. (2009). The late positive potential: A neurophysiological
marker for emotion regulation in children. Journal of Child Psychology and
Psychiatry, 50, 1373-1383.
de Wied M., Gispen-de Wied C., & van Boxtel A. (2010). Empathy dysfunction in
children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. European Journal of
Pharmacology, 626, 7-103.
Doallo S., Cadaveira F., & Rodriguez Holguin S. (2007). Time course of attentional
modulations on automatic emotional processing, Neuroscience Letters, 418, 111-116.
78

Dolan M. & Fullam R. (2004). Theory of mind and mentalizing ability in antisocial
personality disorders with and without psychopathy. Psychological Medicine, 34,
1093-1102.
Eisenberg M. E. & Aalsma M. C. (2005). Bullying and peer victimization: Position
paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36,
88-91.
Escera C., Alho K., Schroger E., & Winkler I. (2000). Involuntary attention and
distractibility as evaluated with event-related brain potentials. Audiology and
Neurotology, 5, 151-166.
Ethofer T., Bretscher J., Gschwind M., Kreifelts B., Wildgruber D., & Vuilleumier P.
(2012). Emotional voice areas: anatomic location, functional properties, and structural
connections revealed by combined fMRI/DTI. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 191-200.
Ethofer T., Van De Ville D., Scherer K., & Vuilleumier P. (2009). Decoding of
emotional information in voice-sensitive cortices. Current Biology, 19, 1028-1033.
Fan Y. & Han S. (2008). Temporal dynamic of neural mechanisms involved in
empathy for pain: An event-related brain potential study. Neuropsychologia, 46,
160-173.
Fan Y. T., Decety J., Yang C. Y., Liu J. L., & Cheng Y. (2010). Unbroken mirror
neurons in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
79

51, 981-988.
Forth A. E., Kosson D. S., & Hare R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist:
Youth version. Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: MultiHealth Systems.
Franken I. H., Nijs I., & Van Strien J. W. (2005). Impulsivity affects mismatch
negativity (MMN) measures of preattentive auditory processing. Biological
Psychology, 70, 161-167.
Frick P. J. & While S. F. (2008). Research review: The importance of
callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial
behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 359-375.
Frick P. J. (2009) Extending the construct of psychopathy to youth: implications fro
understanding, diagnosing, and treating antisocial children and adolescents. Canadian
Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 803-812.
Frick P. J., Cornell A. H., Bodin S. D., Dane H. E., Barry C. T., & Loney B. R. (2003).
Callous-unemotional traits and developmental pathways to severe conduct problems.
Developmental Psychology, 39, 246-260.
Frick P. J. & Viding E. (2009). Antisocial behavior from a developmental
psychopathology perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 1111-1131.
Frick P. J., Ray J. V., Thornton L. C., & Kahn R. E. (2014). Can callous-unemotional
traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct
80

problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychological
Bulletin, 140, 1-57.
Fritz M. V., Wiklund G., Koposov R. A., af Klinteberg B., & Ruchkin V. V (2008).
Psychopathy and violence in juvenile delinquents: what are the associated factors?
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31, 272-279.
Gao Y. & Raine A. (2009). P3 event-related potential impairments in antisocial and
psychopathic individuals: A meta-analysis. Biological Psychology, 82, 199-210.
Ghashghaei H. T. & Barbas H. (2002). Pathways for emotion: Interactions of
prefrontal and anterior temporal pathways in the amygdale of the rhesus monkey.
Neuroscience, 115, 1261-1279.
Giard M. H., Perrin F., Pernier J., & Bouchet P. (1990). Brain generators implicated in
the processing of auditory stimulus deviance: a topographic event-related potential
study. Psychophysiology, 27, 627-640.
Gill K. L. & Calkins S. D. (2003). Do aggressive/destructive toddlers lack concern for
others? Behavioral and physiological indicators of empathic responding in 2-year-old
children. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 55-71.
Hajcak G., Moser J. S., & Simons R. F. (2006). Attending to affect: Appraisal
strategies modulate the electrocortical response to arousing pictures. Emoiton, 6,
517-522.
81

Hajcak G. & Nieuwenhuis S. (2006). Reappraisal modulates the electrocortical
response to unpleasant pictures. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 6,
291-297.
Han S., Fan Y., & Mao L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An
electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93.
Hare R., Glass S. J., & Newman J. P. (2006). Current perspectives on psychopathy.
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 207-246.
Hastings P. D., Zahn-Waxler C., Robinson J., Usher B., & Bridges D. (2000). The
development of concern for others in children with behavior problems.
Developmental Psychology, 36, 531-546.
Hermens D. F., Ward P. B., Hodge M. A., Kaur M., Naismith S. L., & Kickie I. B.
(2010). Impaired MMN/P3a complex in first-episode psychosis: cognitive and
psychosocial associations. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 34, 822-829.
Herpers P. C., Scheepers F. E., Bons D. M., Buitelaar J. K., & Rommelse N. N. (2014).
The cognitive and neural correlates of psychopathy and especially
callous-unemotional traits in youths: a systematic review of the evidence.
Development and Psychopathology, 26, 245-273.
Herpertz S. C., Huebner T., Marx I., Vloet T. D., Fink G. R., Stoecker T., et al. (2008).
Emotional processing in male adolescents with childhood-onset conduct disorder.
82

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 781-791.
Hicks B. M., Bernat E., Malone S. M., Iacono W. G., Patrick C. J., Krueger R. F., et al.
(2007). Genes mediate the association between P3 amplitude and externalizing
disorders. Psychophysiology, 44, 98-105.
Hildebrain D. & Pithers W. D. (1989). Enhancing offender empathy for sexual abuse
victims. In D. R. Laws (Ed.), Relapse prevention with sex offenders (pp. 236-243).
New York: Guilford Press.
Jääskeläinen I. P., Ahveninen J., Andermann M. L., Belliveau J. W., Raij T., & Sams
M. (2011). Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and
attentional functions. Brain Research, 1422, 66-81.
Jääskeläinen I. P., Ahveninen J., Belliveau J. W., Raij T., & Sams M. (2007).
Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition. Trends in Neurosciences, 30, 653-661.
Jääskeläinen I. P., Ahveninen J., Bonmassar G., Dale A. M., Ilmoniemi R. J., Levänen
S., et al. (2004). Human posterior auditory cortex gates novel sounds to consciousness.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 6809-6814.
Jackson P. L., Meltzoff A. N., & Decety J. (2005). How do we perceive the pain of
others: A window into the neural processes involved in empathy. NeuroImage, 24,
771-779.
Jackson P. L., Rainville P., & Decety J. (2006). To what extent do we share the pain of
83

others? Insight from the neural bases of pain empathy. Pain, 125, 5-9.
Jones A. P., Laurens K. R., Herba C. M., Barker G. J., & Viding E. (2009). Amygdala
hypoactivity to fearful faces in boys with conduct problems and callous-unemotional
traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 95-102.
Kähkönen S., Makinen V., Jääskeläinen I. P., Pennanen S., Liesivuori J., & Ahveninen
J. (2005). Psychiatry Research, 138, 61-74.
Keage H. A., Clark C. R., Hermens D. F., Kohn M. R., Clarke S., Williams L. M., et al.
(2006) Distractibility in AD/HD predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes:
the P3a ERP component, heart rate, and performance. Journal of Integrative
Neuroscience, 5, 139-158.
Kiehl K. A., Smith A. M., Hare R. D., Mendrek A., Forster B. B., Brink J., et al.
(2001). Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as
revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 50,
677-684.
Kosson D. S., Lorenz A. R., & Newman J. P. (2006). Effects of comorbid
psychopathy on criminal offending and emotion processing in male offenders with
antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 798-806.
Kujala T., Tervaniemi M., & Schroger E. (2007). The mismatch negativity in
cognitive and clinical neuroscience: theoretical and methodological considerations.
84

Biological Psychology, 74, 1-19.
Lahey B. B. & Waldman I. D. (2003). A developmental propensity model of the
origins of conduct problems during childhood and adolescence. In B. B. Lahey, T. E.
Moffitt T. E. & Caspi A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency
(pp. 76-117). New York: Guilford Press.
Lahey B. B., Loeber R., Burke J. D., & Applegate B. (2005). Predicting future
antisocial personality disorder in males from a clinical assessment in childhood. J
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 389-399.
Lamm C., Batson C. D., & Decety J. (2007). The neural substrate of human empathy:
Effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal. Journal of Cognitive
Neuroscience, 19, 42-58.
Lamm C., Decety J., & Singer T. (2011). Meta-analytic evidence for common and
distinct neural networks associated with directly experienced pain and empathy for
pain. NeuroImage, 54, 2492-2502.
Light G. A., Swerdlow N. R., & Braff D. L. (2007). Preattentive sensory processing as
indexed by the MMN and P3a brain responses is associated with cognitive and
psychosocial functioning in healthy adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19,
1624-1632.
Loney B. R., Butler M. A., Lima E. N., Counts C. A., & Eckel L. A. (2006). The
85

relation between salivary cortisol, callous-unemotional traits, and conduct problems in
an adolescent non-referred sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47,
30-36.
Loney B. R., Frick P. J., Clements C. B., Ellis M. L., & Kerlin K. (2003).
Callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity, and emotional processing in adolescents with
antisocial behavior problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,
32, 66-80.
Lynam D. R., Charnigo R., Moffitt T. E., Raine A., Loeber R., & Stouthamer-Loeber
M. (2009). The stability of psychopathy across adolescence. Development and
Psychopathology, 21, 1133-1153.
Marsh A. A., Finger E. C., Mitchell D. G., Reid M. E., Sims C., Kosson D. S., et al.
(2008). Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents
with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders. American Journal
of Psychiatry, 165, 712-720.
May P. J. & Tiitinen H. (2010). Mismatch negativity (MMN), the deviance-elicited
auditory deflection, explained. Psychophysiology, 47, 66-122.
Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Harrington H., & Milne B. J. (2002). Males on the
life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age
26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179-207.
86

Näätänen R., Kujala T., Kreegipuu K., Carlson S., Escera C., Baldeweg T., et al.
(2011). The mismatch negativity: an index of cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric
and neurological diseases and in ageing. Brain, 134, 3435-3453.
Newman J. P., Curtin J. J., Bertsch J. D., & Baskin-Sommers A. R. (2010) Attention
moderates the fearlessness of psychopathic offenders. Biological Psychiatry, 67,
66-70.
Nicholson C. (1973). Theoretical analysis of field potentials in anisotropic ensembles
of neuronal elements. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 20, 278-288.
Olofsson J. K., Nordin S., Sequeira H., & Polich J. (2008). Affective picture
processing: An integrative review of ERP findings. Biological Psychology, 77,
247-265.
Palomba D., Angrilli A., & Mini A. (1997). Visual evoked potentials, heart rate
responses and memory to emotional pictorial stimuli. International Journal of
Psychophysiology, 27, 55-67.
Pardini D. A., Lochman J. E., & Frick P. J. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and
social-cognitive processes in adjudicated youths. Journal of the American Academy of
Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 364-371.
Patrick C. J., Bernat E. M., Malone S. M., Iacono W. G., Krueger R. F., & McGue M.
(2006). P300 amplitude as an indicator of externalizing in adolescent males.
87

Psychophysiology, 43, 84-92.
Patton J. H., Stanford M. S., & Barratt E. S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barratt
impulsiveness scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 768-774.
Perry A. & Bentin S. (2010). Does focusing on hand grasping intentions modulate
EEG mu and alpha suppression? NeuroReport, 21, 1050-1054.
Pineda J. A. (2005). The functional significance of my rhythms: Translating ‘‘seeing’’
and ‘‘hearing’’ into ‘‘doing.’’ Brain Research Reviews, 50, 57-68.
Polich J. & Comerchero M. D. (2003). P3a from visual stimuli: Typicality, task, and
topography. Brain Topography, 15, 141-152.
Polich J. (2007). Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clinical
Neurophysiology, 118, 2128-2148.
Polier G. G., Herpertz-Dahlmann B., Matthias K., Konrad K., & Vloet T. D. (2010).
Association between trait anxiety and psychopathological characteristics of children
at high risk for severe antisocial development. Atten defic Hyperact Disord, 2,
185-193.
Raine A. (1997). Antisocial behavior and psychophysiology: A biosocial perspective
and a prefrontal dysfunction hypothesis. In D. M. Stoff, J. Breiling & J. D. Maser
(Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 289-304). New York: Wiley.
Raine A., Venables P. H., & Mednick S. A. (1997). Low resting heart rate at age 3
88

years predisposes to aggression at age 11 years: evidence from the Mauritius Child
Health Project. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,
36, 1457-1464.
Ramirez J. M. & Andreu J. M. (2006). Aggression, and some related psychological
constructs (anger, hostility, and impulsivity); some comments from a research project.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 276-291.
Rauschecker J. P. & Scott S. K. (2009). Maps and streams in the auditory cortex:
nonhuman primates illuminate human speech processing. Nature Neuroscience, 12,
718-724.
Reese C. & Polich J. (2003). Alcoholism risk and the P300 event-related brain
potential: Modality, task, and gender effects. Brain and Cognition, 53, 46-57.
Richell R. A., Mitchell D. G., Newman C., Leonard A., Baron-Cohen S., & Blair R. J.
(2003). Theory of mind and psychopathy: Can psychopathic individuals read the
‘‘language of the eyes’’? Neuropsychologia, 41, 523-526.
Rilling J. K., Glenn A. L., Jairam M. R., Pagnoni G., Goldsmith D. R., Elfenbein H. A.,
et al. (2007). Neural correlates of social cooperation and non-cooperation as a
function of psychopathy. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1260-1271.
Rossignol M., Philippot P., Crommelinck M., & Campanella S. (2008). Visual
processing of emotional expressions in mixed anxious-depressed subclinical state: an
89

event-related potential study on a female sample. Clinical Neurophysiology, 38,
267-275.
Sandwell D. T. (1987). Biharmonic Spline Interpolation of GEOS-3 and SEASAT
Altimeter Data. Geophysical Research Letters, 2, 139-142.
SanMiguel I., Morgan H. M., Klein C., Linden D., & Escera C. (2010). On the
functional significance of Novelty-P3: facilitation by unexpected novel sounds.
Biological Psychology, 83, 143-152.
Savitsky J. C. & Czyzewski D (1978). The reaction of adolescent offenders and
nonoffenders to nonverbal emotion displays. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,
6, 89-96.
Schirmer A. & Escoffier N. (2010). Emotional MMN: Anxiety and heart rate correlate
with the ERP signature for auditory change detection. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121,
53-59.
Schirmer A. & Kotz S. A. (2006). Beyond the right hemisphere: brain mechanisms
mediating vocal emotional processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 24-30.
Schirmer A., Simpson E., & Escoffier N. (2007). Listen up! Processing of intensity
change differs for vocal and nonvocal sounds. Brain Research, 1176, 103-112.
Schupp H. T., Cuthbert B. N., Bradley M. M., Cacioppo J. T., Ito T., & Lang P. J.
(2000). Affective picture processing: The late positive potential is modulated by
90

motivational relevance. Psychophysiology, 37, 257-261.
Semmlow J. L. (2004). Biosignal and biomedical image processing: Matlab-based
applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Sharp C., van Goozen S., & Goodyer I. (2006). Children’s subjective emotional
reactivity to affective pictures: gender differences and their antisocial correlates in an
unselected sample of 7-11-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47,
143-150.
Shirtcliff E. A., Vitacco M. J., Graf A. R., Gostisha A. J., Merz J. L., & Zahn-Waxler
C. (2009). Neurobiology of empathy and callousness: Implications for the
development of antisocial behavior. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 27, 137-171.
Singer T. & Lamm C. (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy. Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 81-96.
Smith A. (2009). The empathy imbalance hypothesis of autism: A theoretical
approach to cognitive and emotional empathy in autistic development. The
Psychological Record, 59, 489-510.
Snowden R. J. & Gray N. S. (2011). Impulsivity and psychopathy: associations
between the barrett impulsivity scale and the psychopathy checklist revised.
Psychiatry Research, 187, 414-417.
Spielberger C. D., Gorssuch R. L., Lushene P. R., & Jacobs G. A. (1983). Manual for
91

the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
Sterzer P., Stadler C., Krebs A., Kleinschmidt A., & Poustka F. (2005). Abnormal
neural responses to emotional visual stimuli in adolescents with conduct disorder.
Biological Psychiatry, 57, 7-15.
Sterzer P., Stadler C., Poustka F., & Kleinschmidt A. (2007). A structural neural deficit
in adolescents with conduct disorder and its association with lack of empathy.
NeuroImage, 37, 335-342.
Taylor J., Loney B. R., Bobadilla L., Iacono W. G., & McGue M. (2003). Genetic and
environmental influences on psychopathy trait dimensions in a community sample of
male twins. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 633-645.
Van Goozen S. H. M., Fairchild G., & Harold G. T. (2008). The role of neurobiological
deficits in childhood antisocial behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science,
17, 224-228.
Van Heijnsbergen C. C. R. J., Meeren H. K. M., Grèzes J., & de Gelder B. (2007).
Rapid detection of fear in body expressions, an ERP study. Brain Research, 1186,
233-241.
Viding E., Blair R. J., Moffitt T. E., & Plomin R. (2005). Evidence for substantial
genetic risk for psychopathy in 7-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and
Psychiatry, 46, 592-597.
92

Viding E., Fontaine N. M., & McCrory E. J. (2012). Antisocial behavior in children
with and without callous-unemotional tratis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine,
105, 195-200.
Vuilleumier P. (2005). How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 585-594.
Vuilleumier P. & Pourtois G. (2007). Distributed and interactive brain mechanisms
during emotion face perception: Evidence from functional neuroimaging.
Neuropsychologia, 45, 174-194.
Winer B., Brown D., & Michels K. (1991). Statistical Principles in Experimental
Design. New York: McGrawhill.
Wismer Fries A. B. & Pollak S. (2009). Emotion processing and the developing brain.
In D. Coch, K. W. Fisher & G. Dawson (Eds). Human behavior, learning, and the
developing brain (pp. 329-361). New York: Guilford Press.
Woods D. L. & Knight R. T. (1986). Electrophysiologic evidence of increased
distractibility after dorsolateral prefrontal lesions. Neurology, 36, 212-216.
Woodworth M. & Waschbusch D. (2008). Emotional processing in children with
conduct problems and callous/unemotional traits. Child: Care, Health, and
Development, 34, 234-244.
Yang C. Y., Decety J., Lee S., Chen C., & Cheng Y. (2009). Gender differences in the
93

mu rhythm during empathy for pain: An electroencephalographic study. Brain
Research, 1251, 176-184.
Zahn-Waxler C. & Radke-Yarrow M. (1990). Origins of empathic concern.
Motivation and Emotion, 14, 107-130.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top