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研究生:陳姿伶
研究生(外文):Tzu-Lin Chen
論文名稱:第四型介白素對於肌肉細胞分化及葡萄糖代謝中扮演之角色
論文名稱(外文):Role of Interleukin-4 in Myogenesis and Glucose Metabolism
指導教授:張懿欣張懿欣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yih-Hsin Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:醫學生物技術暨檢驗學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學技術及檢驗學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:第四型介白素第二型糖尿病肌肉分化葡萄糖代謝
外文關鍵詞:Interleukin-4T2DMmyogensisglucose metabolism
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第二型糖尿病(type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM)是一種代謝性異常疾病,通常伴隨高血糖與胰島素阻抗(insulin resistance)的特徵。胰島素阻抗意即胰島素標的細胞對胰島素的敏感度(insulin sensitivity)下降,使下游訊號無法正常傳遞,導致肌肉、肝臟、脂肪細胞無法將葡萄糖攝入細胞內並轉換成能量利用而使血糖濃度持續升高。本實驗室先前發現T2DM患者體內第四型介白素(interleukin-4, IL-4)啟動子與第四型介白素受體(interleukin-4 receptor, IL-4R)的基因多型性分布與正常個體有顯著差異。近期本實驗室更發現提高小鼠體內的IL-4濃度後可改善葡萄糖耐受性(glucose tolerance)與促進胰島素敏感度。綜合以上結果,本實驗室推論IL-4可能參與胰島素的傳遞路徑,因此促使我們想要進一步探討IL-4對於葡萄糖代謝分子調控機制。本研究主要以胰島素標的細胞之一的肌肉細胞為實驗模式,探討IL-4對於肌肉細胞分化與葡萄糖代謝的影響。目前結果指出IL-4可提高成熟肌肉細胞之分化標幟分子myogenin的表現量,促進肌肉細胞的分化作用此外,IL-4可加強胰島素之訊息傳遞,顯著提升提島素訊息路徑中關鍵分子Akt之活化以及GLUT4的轉位作用(GLUT4 translocation)。綜合上述結果,我們認為IL-4可促進肌肉細胞分化,並透過加強胰島素傳遞路徑,促進GLUT4轉位作用調控葡萄糖代謝作用。本研究結果證實IL-4可透過調控胰島素訊息傳遞參與能量代謝作用,希望可以提供未來研發預防及治療肥胖、代謝症候群或T2DM等代謝異常疾病之新穎策略的參考依據與新思維。

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance as major characteristics. Insulin resistance is a physiological condition in which insulin-targeting cells such as the liver cells, adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells fail to respond
to the normal actions of the hormone insulin. Our previous results show a significant association between polymorphisms of genes encoding Th2-derived cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4 receptor with T2DM. In addition, overexpression of IL-4 may promote glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. The above results demonstrate that IL-4 may affect insulin pathway. Therefore, it is tempting for us to further explore the regulatory mechanism of IL-4 to glucose metabolism. The major aim of this study is to investigate the effects of IL-4 on myogenesis and glucose metabolism in muscle cells, one of the major insulin-targeting cells. Our data indicated that IL-4 treatment up-regulated the expression of myogenic markers, myogenin. Additionally, the levels of phosphorylated Akt, a key enzyme in insulin signaling pathway, and GLUT4 translocation ability were also enhanced in myocyte by combined insulin and IL-4 treatment. The above results suggest that IL-4 may promote myogenesis and up-regulate glucose metabolism through boosting insulin signaling in muscle cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of IL-4 may provide a novel treatment for obesity and its related metabolic complications, including T2DM.

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誌謝.............................................................................................................I
中文摘要...................................................................................................II
英文摘要..................................................................................................IV
目錄...........................................................................................................V
縮寫表.......................................................................................................X
壹、 緒論..................................................................................................1
一、 糖尿病....................................................................................1
1. 糖尿病流行概論.............................................................1
2. 糖尿病定義與臨床症狀.................................................1
3. 糖尿病診斷.....................................................................2
4. 糖尿病分類.....................................................................3
二、 肌肉組織................................................................................6
1. 心肌細胞.........................................................................6
2. 平滑肌細胞.....................................................................6
3. 骨骼肌細胞.....................................................................6
三、 myokines..............................................................................10
四、 骨骼肌細胞之粒線體..........................................................10
五、 胰島素對於肌肉細胞之作用..............................................12
1. GLUT4轉位與葡萄糖攝取作用..................................12
2. 肝醣合成.......................................................................14
3. T2DM與肌肉細胞胰島素阻抗...................................15
六、 第四型介白素......................................................................16
1. IL-4基本介紹...............................................................16
2. IL-4之功能...................................................................17
3. IL-4與T2DM................................................................18
貳、 研究目的........................................................................................20
參、 材料與方法....................................................................................21
一、 細胞培養..............................................................................21
1. 繼代培養..........................................................................21
2. 冷凍細胞..........................................................................21
3. 解凍細胞..........................................................................22
4. 肌肉細胞分化..................................................................22
二、 聚合酶連鎖反應..................................................................22
1. 萃取RNA.........................................................................22
2. 反轉錄作用......................................................................23
3. 聚合酶鏈鎖反應..............................................................24
4. 引子..................................................................................24
5. DNA電泳.........................................................................24
三、 粒線體DNA基因套數之測定............................................25
1. Genomic DNA抽取和純化.............................................25
2. 即時定量聚合酶連鎖反應..............................................26
四、 西方墨點法..........................................................................27
1. 蛋白質萃取......................................................................27
2. 蛋白質定量......................................................................27
3. 蛋白質樣品製備..............................................................28
4. 西方墨點法......................................................................28
五、 螢光顯微鏡..........................................................................31
六、 GLUT4轉位作用................................................................31
七、 葡萄糖攝取作用..................................................................32
八、 統計分析..............................................................................33
肆、 結果................................................................................................34
一、 建立完全分化之成熟肌肉細胞實驗模式..........................34
1. 肌肉分化.......................................................................34
二、 IL-4對於肌肉細胞分化之影響..........................................35
1. C2C12細胞表現IL-4接受蛋白並可傳遞IL-4訊息...36
2. IL-4促進肌肉細胞分化作用.......................................37
3. IL-4對粒線體DNA套數表現的影響.........................37
三、 IL-4促進胰島素之訊息傳遞..............................................38
1. IL-4促進GLUT4之轉位作用.....................................38
2. IL-4促進葡萄糖攝取作用...........................................39
3. IL-4提升胰島素下游訊息傳遞分子Akt Ser473與GSK-3 Ser9的磷酸化................................................40
4. IL-4對糖質新生作用的影響.......................................41
伍、 討論................................................................................................43
陸、 參考文獻........................................................................................49
柒、 圖表與圖表說明............................................................................60
Fig 1. Expression of myogenic differentiation markers mRNA in C2C12 cells during myogenesis.........................................60
Fig 2. Expression of myogenic differentiation markers protein in C2C12 cells during myogenesis.........................................61
Fig 3. Morphological alteration of C2C12 cells from myoblasts to terminal differentiated skeletal myocytes..........................62
Fig 4. Differentiated C2C12 cells express IL-4 receptors and transmit the downstream signaling pathway......................64
Fig 5. IL-4 promotes myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells....................................................................................65
Fig 6. IL-4 promotes mtDNA copy number during myogenesis..66
Fig 7. Effects of IL-4 on GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in mature C2C12 myotubes................................................67
Fig 8. IL-4 up-regulates the phosphorylated levels of Akt Ser473 and GSK-3β Ser9 in C2C12 myoblasts..............................68
Fig 9. IL-4 up-regulates the phosphorylated levels of Akt Ser473 and GSK-3β Ser9 in mature C2C12 myotubes..................69
Fig 10. IL-4 does not affect the protein expression of PEPCK in C2C12 myoblasts...............................................................70
Fig 11. IL-4 does not affect the protein expression of PEPCK in mature C2C12 myotubes....................................................71
捌、 附錄................................................................................................72
附圖一、 Transcription factor and kinases regulating the different stages of myogenesis......................................................72
附圖二、 Currently proposed signaling pathways for insulin and contraction-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in muscle...................................................73
附圖三、 The signalling pathway by which insulin inhibits GSK3 and contributes to the stimulation of glycogen and protein synthesis.............................................................74
附圖四、 Th2 cell differentiation requires both gATA3 expression and STAT5 activation.....................................................75
附表一、 引子序列.......................................................................76

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