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研究生:李浩廷
研究生(外文):Hao-Ting Lee
論文名稱:應用於工廠無線感測網路之負載平衡路由設計
論文名稱(外文):A Load-Balanced Routing In Industrial Wireless Sensor Network
指導教授:張慶龍張慶龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Lung Chang
口試委員:侯廷昭李詩偉
口試委員(外文):Ting-Chao HouShih-Wei Lee
口試日期:2014-06-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:53
中文關鍵詞:工廠感測網路負載平衡路由協定線性規劃拉氏鬆弛法模擬退火演算法
外文關鍵詞:Industrial wireless sensor networkload balanceRouting protocollinear programmingLagrangian relaxationsimulated anneal
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工廠無線感測網路具有感測資料回傳時間限制與電源限制問題,當感測節點電源耗盡,或資料傳輸過程中遭遇封包碰撞,皆可能造成感測資料無法在限制的時間內到達控制中心,無法即時對所發生的事件做適度反應,可能造成嚴重的後果。在先前研究中發現,在一個節點隨機分布的環境下,節點間發生隱藏節點的機率高達41%,然而在感測網路環境中,主要通訊網路為Zigbee網路,其所採用的IEEE 802.15.4的MAC協定為CSMA/CA(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance)機制,其以隨機退後競爭機制來避免隱藏節點所造成的碰撞問題,但是實際上並沒有完全解決隱藏節點的問題,而只是降低碰撞發生的機率。當網路負載重,碰撞機率大幅提升時,不僅會無法預測網路訊框成功傳送出去的時間、導致吞吐量(throughput) 急速降低、重複傳送資料封包之外,嚴重時整個網路可能會完全癱瘓。本論文主要將工廠無線感測節點建成一條邏輯循環鏈(logic ring)以及多條備用路由(backup route)網路,採用線性規劃(Liner Programming, LP)建立模型再利用拉式鬆弛法(Lagrangian relaxation, LR)與次梯度啟發式法(Subgradient based heuristic method)建立具負載平衡考量之邏輯循環鏈以及備用節點拓撲,輔以所提出之Multi-Ping-Pong Token傳送機制,可有效掌握感測資料傳送時間及延長系統運作時間。模擬結果顯示,本論文所提之線性規劃模型配合Multi-Ping-Pong Token傳送機制可建出一個最佳的負載平衡之邏輯循環鏈,以取得最低傳輸延遟時間及使系統運作時間最長。
Wireless sensor network in industrial environment (denoted IWSN) has data delivery time constraint from sensor node to sink node. Due to the dynamic routing and transmission collision, the data delivery time is unpredictable. Previous research has shown that probability of incurring a hidden terminal problem in a random deployment network reaches forty-one percents. To avoid the collision from a hidden terminal problem, IEEE802.15.4 adopts CSMA/CA which is a backoff contention mechanism between the devices. But actually it is unable to solve the hidden terminal problem completely. It only reduces the probability of collision form hidden terminal problem. When the load is heavy which means the probability of collision is increased, it may reduce the throughput, retransmit data, and seriously entire network may be shutdown.
In this paper, a proactive routing which constructs the sensor nodes into a logical circular chain (i.e., ring topology) with token-based transmission is developed to avoid data collision and to provide bounded transmission delay. We utilize linear programming to model, then a lagrangian relaxation and subgradient based heuristic method are applied to construct a load-balanced logical circular chain and a backup route in IWSN. Furthermore, a Multi-Ping-Pong Token-Pass scheme is applied to prolong the network lifetime. The simulation results reveal that the linear programming with Multi-Ping-Pong Token-Pass scheme has the best performance in load balance and network lifetime.

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 1
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 背景介紹 4
2.1 無線感測網路簡介 4
2.2 隱藏節點與載波偵聽多路訪問/碰撞避免 (CSMA/CA) 7
2.3 令牌環網路 (Token Ring) 9
2.4 線性規劃 11
2.5 模擬退火演算法 12
第三章 相關研究 14
3.1 A novel approach for data forwarding in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks[5] 14
3.2 Robust Chain-based Transmission Scheduling with Bounded Delay in Industrial in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks[6] 16
第四章 系統架構 17
4.1 鄰居探索 17
4.1.1 建立鄰居表 17
4.1.2 回傳鄰居表 18
4.2 負載平衡鏈建置 19
4.2.1 負載平衡-線性規劃 19
4.2.2 模擬退火演算法 21
4.3 備用路由建置 25
4.3.1 備用路由-線性規劃 25
4.3.2 Lagrangian solving procedure 27
4.3.2.1 Lagrangian Lower Bound 27
4.3.2.2 Subgradient based Heuristic method 28
4.3.2.3 Heuristic Based Upper Bound 28
4.4 Multi-Ping-Pong Token 28
第五章 模擬分析 31
5.1 模擬環境 31
5.2 效能評估方法 32
5.2.1 負載平衡表現評估方法 32
5.2.2 網路生命週期評估方法 33
5.2.3 殘存能量評估方法 34
5.2.4 收集感測資料時間評估方法 34
5.3 模擬結果 35
5.3.1 負載平衡效果 35
5.3.2 網路生命週期 36
5.3.3 收集感測資料時間 38
5.3.4 Multi-Ping-Pong Token 網路生命週期效果 39
5.3.5 各節點殘存能量 41
第六章 結論 42
參考文獻 43

[1]Vehbi C. Gungor, Gerhard P. Hancke, “Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Challenges Design Principles and Technical Approaches,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, Vol. 56, No. 10, pp. 4258-4265, OCTOBER 2009.
[2]Y. C. Tseng, S. Y. Ni, and E. Y. Shih, “Adaptive Approaches to Relieving Broadcast Storms in a Wireless Multihop Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 545-557, May 2003.
[3]I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cyirci, “A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, Aug. 2002, pp.102 -114.
[4]IEEE 802.15.4, Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), Standard, IEEE, Dec. 2003.
[5]Emanuele Toscano, Lucia Lo Bello, “A novel approach for data forwarding in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks,” 2010 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Sept. 2010.
[6]丁品熏、胡仁豪、侯廷昭,“適用於工廠無線感測網路的強健傳輸排程演算法的設計,“International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol.4 No.1(2014):125-128.
[7]N.Bartolini, T. Calamoneri, E. G. Fusco, A. Massini, S. Silvestri, “Snap and Spread: a self-deployment algorithm for mobile sensor networks,”DCOSS ’08 Proceedings of the 4th IEEE international conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems Pages 451-456.
[8]Ching-Lung Chang, Hua-Han Chiang, “The research of routing problem in industrial wireless sensor network,” IPPR Conference on Computer Vision, Graphic, and Image Processing.
[9]D. Chiu and R. Jain, “Analysis of the Increase and Decrease Algorithms for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks,” Journal of Computer Networks and ISDN, vol. 17, June 1989.
[10]Wendi B. Heinzelman, Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Hari Balakrishnan, “An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 660-670, OCTOBER 2002.
[11]G. Laporte, “The traveling salesman problem: a overview of exact of approximate algorithms,” Eupopean Journal of Operation Research, vol.59,pp.231-247,1992.
[12]黃裕彰, “802.11無線網路技術通論,” 2006年5月出版, 美商歐萊禮股份有限公司。

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