(3.215.183.251) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/22 09:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:翁亘琪
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Chi Weng
論文名稱:含磷反應型阻燃水性聚胺酯防水透濕材料之研發
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Waterproof and Permeability of Water-Borne Polyurethane Materials with Phosphorus-Containing Reactive Flame Retardants
指導教授:王怡仁王怡仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen-Zen Wang
口試委員:何國賢徐善慧連萬福蔡皇仙
口試委員(外文):Ko-Shan HoShan-hui HsuWan-Fu LienHuang-Shian Tsai
口試日期:2014-07-10
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材料工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:反應型阻燃水性聚胺酯防水透濕限氧指數磷系阻燃劑磷氮系阻燃劑
外文關鍵詞:Reactive flame retardant of water-borne polyurethaneWaterproof and permeabilityLimited Oxygen IndexPhosphorus based flame retardantsNitrogen-phosphorus based flame retardants
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:421
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:22
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究軟鏈段選用聚醚多元醇中的聚乙二醇(PEG)、聚酯多元醇中的聚丁二醇己二酸(PBA),硬鏈段則選用不易黃變的脂肪族異氰酸酯4,4-二苯甲基二異氰酸鹽(H12 MDI),內部乳化劑選擇具有COOH官能基的二羥基甲基丙酸(DMPA),中和劑為三乙胺(TEA),鏈延長劑則使用具有阻燃效果的磷系阻燃劑(DOPO-HQ)及磷氮系阻燃劑(FRC-6)去合成反應型阻燃水性聚胺酯,將合成完之阻燃水性聚胺酯以外添加方式分別加入NCO-J型與NCO-G型交聯劑並塗佈於織物上,以適當的預乾時間與預乾溫度去探討其剝離強度、防水透濕、阻燃等性質。
首先合成不同配比的反應型阻燃水性聚胺酯,並添加不同比例的NCO交聯劑,以FT-IR與NMR進行結構鑑定,利用FT-IR觀察交聯劑與阻燃水性聚胺酯的分子作用力,輔以TGA及DSC去對薄膜進行性質分析之探討,阻燃水性聚胺酯配置成塗佈液對織物進行加工,利用FE-SEM觀察塗佈液與織物間的接著情況,在防水透濕部份去測試剝離強度、耐水壓、透濕度,再以限氧指數LOI與CPAI-84規範下測試阻燃性質。
由FT-IR結果顯示,添加交聯劑後觀察到氫鍵作用力及交聯作用的存在,在性質分析中,無論在氮氣或是空氣環境下,都會隨著阻燃劑含量增加其裂解溫度較未添加阻燃劑時提前,殘留量而有上升的情形,添加不同交聯劑的狀況下,又以添加NCO-G型的薄膜熱穩定性及阻燃性最佳。由FE-SEM觀察接著情形及剝離強度測試下,結果為13FREG G-5%型的剝離強度最強;防水透濕測驗結果為EG型與13FREG NCO-G型交聯劑下較其他配比中,具有良好的耐水壓與透濕度。
塗佈層之阻燃性質分析中,20FREG G-5%測出LOI值為27.5,且CPAI-84之碳化距離為90mm,相較於其他配方阻燃效果是最佳。

In this study, a series of reactive flame retardants of water-borne polyurethane were prepared from polyether polyol (polyethylene glycol (PEG)) and polyester polyol (polybutylene adipate (PBA)) prepolymers. The PEG and PBA behaved as a soft segment in the polyurethane backbones. Aliphatic isocyanate hydrogenated (diphenylmethane diisocyanate (H12MDI)) was used as a hard segment. Dihydroxy methyl propionic acid (DMPA) with carboxylic acid functional group, Triethylamin(TEA), and nitrogen-phosphorus based flame retardants of FRC-6 and phosphorus based flame retardants of DOPO-HQ were incorporated into the reactive flame retardant of water-borne polyurethane as an internal emulsifier, neutralizer agent, and the chain extending agent, respectively. The water-borne polyurethane with flame retardant was added with isocyanate cross-linking agent (FTC: NCO-J or BAYER: NCO-G), and then was coated on the fabric whose peeling strength, waterproof and permeability, and flame retardant properties were investigated.
First the water-borne polyurethane with different ratios of flame retardant were synthesized, and then was cross-linked with add different kinds of cross-linking agent. FTIR and NMR were used for structural characterization, and FTIR was also used for the study on the molecular interaction forces between the cross-linking agent and the flame retardant of the water-borne polyurethane. TGA and DSC were used to investigate the properties of the film. The water-borne polyurethane with reactive flame retardant was coated on fabrics, and then the interface between the polyurethane coating and the fabrics was investigated by FE-SEM. The peeling strength, waterproof and water vapor permeability were then studied subsequently. The Limited Oxygen Index (LOI) tester and CPAI-84 were applied to characterize the flame retardant ability of reactive flame retardant water-borne polyurethane.
The intermolecular force between polyurethane and the fabric were found to be hydrogen bonding and cross-linking based on FTIR spectra. TGA results showed that the degradation temperature decreased and the char yield increased as the flame retardant content increased whether in nitrogen or air atmosphere. Reactive flame retardant water-borne polyurethane with NCO-G cross-linking agent owned the best film thermal stability and flame retardant properties. The 13FREG added G-5% cross-linking agent had great peeling strength according to the peeling test and FE-SEM morphology. The EG and 13FREG added NCO-G cross-linking agent had better degree of waterproof and water vapor permeability. The 20FREG G-5% had the best flame retardaning properties with the Limited Oxygen Index (LOI) values of 27.5 and the char length is as long as 90mm.

目錄
摘要i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 iv
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 防水透濕織物(waterproof and moisture permeable fabrics)的發展 1
1-2阻燃水性聚胺酯的發展 3
1-3研究動機與目的 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2-1織物簡介 6
2-2高分子燃燒理論 9
2-3阻燃理論 13
2-4阻燃劑的分類與概述 15
2-5防水透濕理論 19
2-5-1透濕性理論 20
2-5-2防水性理論 21
2-6黏著機制 22
2-7阻燃水性聚胺酯介紹 24
2-7-1多元醇(Polyol) 25
2-7-2異氰酸鹽(Isocyanate) 27
2-7-3內部乳化劑(Internal emulsifiers) 31
2-7-3-1陽離子型內部乳化劑(Cationic) 31
2-7-3-2陰離子型內部乳化劑(Anionic) 32
2-7-3-3陰陽離子共存型內部乳化劑 33
2-7-3-4非離子型內部乳化劑(Nonionic) 33
2-7-4鏈延長劑(Chain Extender) 34
2-7-5中和劑(Neutralizer) 34
2-7-6交聯劑 35
2-8水性聚胺酯合成方法 41
2-8-1溶液法(solution process) 41
2-8-2預聚物混合法(prepolymer mixing process) 42
2-8-3熱熔法(melt dispersion process) 43
2-8-4酮亞胺-酮連氮法(Ketimine- Ketazine process) 44
第三章 實驗材料與設備 45
3-1 實驗材料 45
3-2 使用儀器 51
3-3實驗流程 54
3-4實驗步驟 57
3-5性質測試 62
第四章 結果與討論 67
4-1 阻燃水性聚胺酯之合成鑑定 67
4-1-1 FTIR之分析 67
4-1-2 1H-NMR之分析 71
4-1-3 31P-NMR之分析 72
4-2阻燃水性聚胺酯薄膜性質分析 74
4-2-1 熱性質分析(TGA) 74
4-2-1-1阻燃水性聚胺酯薄膜在氮氣氛圍下分析(TGA-N2) 74
4-2-1-2阻燃水性聚胺酯薄膜在空氣氛圍下分析(TGA-AIR) 83
4-2-2示差熱掃描分析(DSC) 94
4-2-3 凝膠分率之分析 101
4-3以阻燃水性聚胺酯作為聚酯織物(PET)塗佈層之物性分析 102
4-3-1剝離強度 102
4-3-2耐水壓與透濕度 105
4-3-3親疏水性分析 109
4-4織物塗佈層的微結構分析(場發式SEM) 116
4-5以阻燃水性聚胺酯作為聚醯胺織物(Nylon 6)塗佈層之阻燃性分析 123
4-5-1 限氧指數(Limited Oxygen Index,LOI)的阻燃性質分析 123
4-5-2 CPAI-84的阻燃性質分析 126
第五章 結論 129
參考文獻 131

1.Lomax, G., The design of waterproof, water vapour-permeable fabrics. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 1985. 15(1): p. 40-66.
2.Painter, C.J., Waterproof, breathable fabric laminates: a perspective from film to market place. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 1996. 26(2): p. 107-130.
3.潘鶯、王善元, Gore tex防水透濕層壓織物的概述. 中國紡織大學學報. 24(5): p. 110-114.
4.Leitch, P. and T.H. Tassinari, Interactive Textiles: New Materials in the New Millennium. Part 1. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 2000. 29(3): p. 173-190.
5.Ming, Z.X.X.T.X., Smart textiles (2): Active smart. Textile Asia, 2001. 32(7): p. 49-52.
6.Lomax, G.R., "Intelligent" polyurethanes for interactive clothing. Textile Asia, 2001. 32(9): p. 39-50.
7.李紹雄,劉益軍, 聚胺酯樹酯及其應用.
8.黃婷芬, 水性聚胺酯應用於聚酯織物塗層界面特性之研究. 碩士論文,雲林科技大學化學工程與材料工程研究所, 2013.
9.袁開軍,江治,李疏芬,周允基, 聚氨酯的阻燃性機理研究進展. 高分子材料科學與工程, 2006. 22(5): p. 1-4.
10.陳鶴,羅運軍,柴春鹏,葛震, 阻燃水性聚氨酯研究進展. 高分子材料科學與工程, 2009. 25(6): p. 171-174.
11.Feng Wang , Q.J.a.J.E.M., polymer preprints. 1997. 38(1): p. 219-220.
12.Qing Ji, M.M., C.Tchatchoua,S.Srinivasan,T.C.ward and J.E.McGrath, polymer preprints. 1996. 37(1): p. 579-580.
13.Liaw, D.J., The relative physical and thermal properties of polyurethane elastomers: Effect of chain extenders of bisphenols, diisocyanate, and polyol structures. Journal of applied polymer science, 1997. 66(7): p. 1251-1265.
14.Sivriev, C. and L. Żabski, Flame retarded rigid polyurethane foams by chemical modification with phosphorus-and nitrogen-containing polyols. European polymer journal, 1994. 30(4): p. 509-514.
15.鄭婷文, 具遮光、阻燃及防水之複合機能性織物的製備,碩士論文. 逢甲大學紡織工程研究所, 2009.
16.張軍、紀奎江、夏延致, 聚合物燃燒與阻燃技術. 化學工業出版社, 2005: p. 269-270.
17.王永強, 阻燃材料及應用技術. 化學工業出版社, 2003: p. 425.
18.沈永清、張信貞、莊學平、張榮樹, 高分子難燃機構及原理. 化工資訊, 1995. 9(2): p. 15-31.
19.M.F.Lucey, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology. 1994. 4(2): p. 326.
20.Kaplan, H.L., A.F. Grand, and G.E. Hartzell, Toxicity and the smoke problem. Fire safety journal, 1984. 7(1): p. 11-23.
21.Lutz, J.T., Thermoplastic polymer additives: theory and practice. 1989: M. Dekker,New York and Basel. 93-203.
22.楊連成, 反應型有機磷阻燃劑的合成與阻燃性能研究. 2009, 大連理工大學.
23.Ozawa, T., A new method of analyzing thermogravimetric data. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 1965. 38(11): p. 1881-1886.
24.Doyle, C., Kinetic analysis of thermogravimetric data. Journal of applied polymer science, 1961. 5(15): p. 285-292.
25.Fantin, G.M., A,Fogagnolo, M,Pedrini, P,Gleria, M,Bertani, R,Facchin, G, Functionalization of poly (organophosphazenes)—III. Synthesis of phosphazene materials containing carbon-carbon double bonds and epoxide groups. European polymer journal, 1993. 29(12): p. 1571-1579.
26.鐘裕杰, 阻燃水性聚氨酯之研究. 華岡紡織期刊, 2007. 14(4): p. 371-375.
27.陳佳麗, 含磷氮阻燃劑陰離子水性PU之合成及其在織物整理加工上之應用. 碩士論文,國立台灣科技大學纖維及高分子研究所, 1999.
28.Ravey M., K.I., Weil, Edward D.,Pearce, Eli M., Flexible polyurethane foam. II. Fire retardation by tris (1, 3‐dichloro‐2‐propyl) phosphate part A. Examination of the vapor phase (the flame). Journal of applied polymer science, 1998. 68(2): p. 217-229.
29.Sophie Duquesne, M.L.B., Serge Bourbigot,René Delobel, Giovanni Camino, Berend Eling, Chris Lindsay, Toon Roels and Hervé Vezin, Mechanism of fire retardancy of polyurethanes using ammonium polyphosphate. Journal of applied polymer science, 2001. 82(13): p. 3262-3274.
30.Duquesne S., D.R., Le Bras M.,Camino G., A comparative study of the mechanism of action of ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite in polyurethane. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2002. 77(2): p. 333-344.
31.Chung, Y.-j., Y. Kim, and S. Kim, Flame retardant properties of polyurethane produced by the addition of phosphorous containing polyurethane oligomers (II). Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2009. 15(6): p. 888-893.
32.Wang, T.Z. and K.N. Chen, Introduction of covalently bonded phosphorus into aqueous‐based polyurethane system via postcuring reaction. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 1999. 74(10): p. 2499-2509.
33.Mequanint, K., R. Sanderson, and H. Pasch, Thermogravimetric study of phosphated polyurethane ionomers. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2002. 77(1): p. 121-128.
34.Çelebi, F.A., Leyla,Gündüz, Güngör,Akhmedov, Idris M, Synthesis and characterization of waterborne and phosphorus-containing flame retardant polyurethane coatings. Journal of Coatings Technology, 2003. 75(944): p. 65-71.
35.Chen He, L.Y., Chai Chunpeng,Wang Jiong,Li Jie,Xia Min, Synthesis and characterization of phosphorus‐containing waterborne polyurethanes: Effects of the organophosphonate content on the flame retardancy, morphology, and film properties. Journal of applied polymer science, 2008. 110(5): p. 3107-3115.
36.黃湘婷, 聚酯織物塗層界面特性之研究. 碩士論文,國立雲林科技大學化學工程與材料工程研究所, 2012.
37.黃詩琴, 微多孔透氣防水和無孔親水型透濕防水織物產品介紹. 絲織園地, 2011. 75.
38.Gündüz, G. and M. Gafaroğullari̇, Highly branched and tartaric acid‐based water‐borne resins. Journal of applied polymer science, 2001. 80(4): p. 604-612.
39.Chen, S.A. and W.C. Chan, Polyurethane cationomers. I. Structure‐property relationships. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 1990. 28(9): p. 1499-1514.
40.李蕙惜, 水性聚氨酯添加界面活性劑之研究. 碩士論文,東海大學化學工程學系, 2004.
41.Aitken, R.R. and G.M.F. Jeffs, Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers based on aliphatic diisocyanates: thermal transitions. Polymer, 1977. 18(2): p. 197-198.
42.鍾正宏, 聚胺脂發泡體之耐黃變形質與光穩定性質研究. 碩士論文,勤益科技大學材料與化學工程研究所, 2006.
43.G, O. and P.H.n.e., Hanser Publisher. Munich Vienna New York, 1993.
44.FC,P.T.,Ed,Bruins,P.F., F., Interscience Publishers. New York, 1979: p. 1.
45.Randal, D. and S. Lee, The Polyurethanes Book. John Wiley & son, 2002: p. 104-125.
46.H.A.Al-Salah,K.C.F.,H.X.Xiao,J.A.,Jr, J.Applied Polymer Science A, 1988. 26: p. 1609-1620.
47.Egboh,S.H., J.Macromol.Sci.Chem.A, 1984. 21(1): p. 35.
48.U.S.Patent 4190566, B.A.G., 1980.
49.林嘉賢, 水性PU之合成及其物性探討. 碩士論文,國立高雄應用科技大學化學工程與材料工程系, 2009.
50.黃長澤, 水性塗料之乾燥及成膜. 高分子工業, 1998. 80: p. 88-93.
51.Gentilhomme, A., Thermal degradation of methyl methacrylate polymers functionalized by phosphorous-containing molecules. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 2005. 11: p. 177.
52.蘇郁婷, 阻燃撥水複合特性應用於噴墨印染技術之可行性. 碩 士 論 文,逢甲 大 學紡 織 工 程 研 究 所, 2009.
53.Zhang, J., A. Horrocks, and M. Hall, The flammability of polyacrylonitrile and its copolymers IV. The flame retardant mechanism of ammonium polyphosphate. Fire and materials, 1994. 18(5): p. 307-312.
54.Chen, Y. and Y.L. Chen, Aqueous dispersions of polyurethane anionomers: effects of countercation. Journal of applied polymer science, 1992. 46(3): p. 435-443.
55.Yang, C.H., S.M. Lin, and T.C. Wen, Application of statistical experimental strategies to the process optimization of waterborne polyurethane. Polymer Engineering & Science, 1995. 35(8): p. 722-730.
56.Sánchez–Adsuar, M., E. Papon, and J.J. Villenave, Properties of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers chemically modified by rosin. Journal of applied polymer science, 2001. 82(14): p. 3402-3408.
57.Dochniak, M.J., Y. Duan, and S. Stammler, Aqueous anionic poly (urethane/urea) dispersions. 1997, Google Patents.
58.Kim, B.K. and Y.M. Lee, Aqueous dispersion of polyurethanes containing ionic and nonionic hydrophilic segments. Journal of applied polymer science, 1994. 54(12): p. 1809-1815.
59.D. Dieterich, P.H., G. Oertel, ed., Hanser Publisher, New York, Chapter 2, 1985.
60.Noble, K.-L., Waterborne polyurethanes. Progress in organic coatings, 1997. 32(1): p. 131-136.
61.王萃萃, 戴震, and 许戈文, 硬段阻燃改性水性聚氨酯的研究. 中国涂料, 2010(008): p. 57-60.
62.Coutinho, F., M.C. Delpech, and L.S. Alves, Anionic waterborne polyurethane dispersions based on hydroxyl‐terminated polybutadiene and poly (propylene glycol): Synthesis and characterization. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2001. 80(4): p. 566-572.
63.Coutinho, F.M.B. and M.C. Delpech, Degradation profile of films cast from aqueous polyurethane dispersions. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2000. 70(1): p. 49-57.
64.Quittmann Ulrich, L.L., El Khatib Wassef,Youssef Boulos,Bunel Claude, Synthesis of a New Phosphonated Dimethacrylate: Photocuring Kinetics in Homo‐and Copolymerization, Determination of Thermal and Flame‐Retardant Properties. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2001. 202(5): p. 628-635.
65.Subramani S., L.J., Cheong IW.,Kim JH., Synthesis and characterization of water‐borne crosslinked silylated polyurethane dispersions. Journal of applied polymer science, 2005. 98(2): p. 620-631.
66.Spontón M., L.G., Ronda JC.,Galià M.,Cádiz V., Development of a DOPO-containing benzoxazine and its high-performance flame retardant copolybenzoxazines. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2009. 94(10): p. 1693-1699.
67.Rahman, M.M. and H.-D. Kim, Effect of polyisocyanate hardener on waterborne polyurethane adhesive containing different amounts of ionic groups. Macromolecular Research, 2006. 14(6): p. 634-639.
68.蔡宗志, 雙胺鏈延長劑長度對陰離子水性PU的影響. 碩士論文,國立中央大學, 2011.
69.胡德, 高分子物理與機械性質. 1990.
70.李芬,羅運軍,李曉萌,李杰, 磷-氮改性水性聚氨酯在涤纶織物上的阻燃研究. 高校化學工程學報, 2012. 4: p. 030.
71.賴建呈, 磷化合物之種類與濃度對水性PU樹酯耐燃性之研究. 碩士論文,中國文化大學應用化學研究所, 2007.
72.Giraud Stephane, B.S., Rochery Maryline,Vroman Isabelle,Tighzert Lan,Delobel René,Poutch Franck, Flame retarded polyurea with microencapsulated ammonium phosphate for textile coating. Polymer degradation and stability, 2005. 88(1): p. 106-113.
73.Meng Qing Bo, L.S.-I., Nah Changwoon,Lee Youn-Sik, Preparation of waterborne polyurethanes using an amphiphilic diol for breathable waterproof textile coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings, 2009. 66(4): p. 382-386.
74.王萃萃, 江飛, and 許戈文, 無鹵阻燃水性聚氨酯的製備及性能研究. 聚氨酯, 2010. 4: p. 71073.
75.林孟毅, 含磷水性聚胺酯複合材料作為阻燃塗料之研究. 碩士論文,國防大學理工學院應化學及材料工程學系, 2012.
76.Liang Shuyu, N.M., Mispreuve Henri,Naescher Reinold,Gaan Sabyasachi, Flame retardancy and thermal decomposition of flexible polyurethane foams: Structural influence of organophosphorus compounds. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2012. 97(11): p. 2428-2440.
77.Wang Cheng‐Qun, L.H.N., Sun Jie,Cai Zai‐Sheng, Flame retardant and thermal decomposition properties of flexible polyurethane foams filled with several halogen‐free flame retardants. Polymer Engineering & Science, 2013.
78.Wang Shih-Chieh, C.P.-C., Peng Chun-Ju,Hwang Jing-Zhong,Chen Kan-Nan, Flame retardation behaviors of UV-curable phosphorus-containing PU coating system. Journal of Polymer Engineering, 2013. 33(8): p. 749-756.
79.Hu, X.M. and D.M. Wang, Enhanced fire behavior of rigid polyurethane foam by intumescent flame retardants. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2013. 129(1): p. 238-246.
80.Yang Hongyu, W.X., Yu Bin,Yuan Haixia,Song Lei,Hu Yuan,Yuen Richard KK,Yeoh Guan Heng, A novel polyurethane prepolymer as toughening agent: Preparation, characterization, and its influence on mechanical and flame retardant properties of phenolic foam. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2013. 128(5): p. 2720-2728.
81.Xing, W.Y., Haixia,Yang, Hongyu,Song, Lei,Hu, Yuan, Functionalized lignin for halogen-free flame retardant rigid polyurethane foam: preparation, thermal stability, fire performance and mechanical properties. Journal of Polymer Research, 2013. 20(9): p. 1-12.
82.Wu, D.H.Z., Pei‐Hua,Liu, Ya‐Qing,Liu, Xue‐Yi,Wang, Xiao‐feng, Halogen Free flame retardant rigid polyurethane foam with a novel phosphorus− nitrogen intumescent flame retardant. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2013.
83.Zhang Liqiang, Z.M., Zhou Yonghong,Hu Lihong, The study of mechanical behavior and flame retardancy of castor oil phosphate-based rigid polyurethane foam composites containing expanded graphite and triethyl phosphate. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2013. 98(12): p. 2784-2794.
84.Chen, M.-J., Chen Chun-Rong,Tan Yi,Huang Jian-Qian,Wang Xiu-Li,Chen Li,Wang Yu-Zhong, Inherently Flame-Retardant Flexible Polyurethane Foam with Low Content of Phosphorus-Containing Cross-Linking Agent. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2014. 53(3): p. 1160-1171.
85.Xue Meng, Z.X., Wu Zhaofeng,Wang Huan,Gu Zhen,Bao Chao,Tian Xingyou, A commercial phosphorous–nitrogen containing intumescent flame retardant for thermoplastic polyurethane. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2014. 131(2).
86.Zhang Qiang, C.F., Ma Lin,Zhou Xuesong, Preparation and application of phosphorous‐containing bio‐polyols in polyurethane foams. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2014. 131(12).

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔