(3.238.249.17) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/12 11:36
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡銘洋
研究生(外文):Ming-Yang Tsai
論文名稱:萃取程序應用於重油中芳香烴之分離
論文名稱(外文):Separation of Aromatics from Heavy Oil by Solvent Extraction
指導教授:陳文星陳文星引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Shing Chen
口試委員:王怡仁洪正宗
口試委員(外文):Yen-Zen WangCheng-Tsung Hong
口試日期:2014/7/25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材料工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:重油加氫脫硫製程溶劑萃取溶劑脫蠟潤滑油之基礎油
外文關鍵詞:hydrogenation of heavy fuel oilsolvent extractionsolvent dewaxingbase oil of lubricant
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:213
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:30
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
重油加氫脫硫工場(RDS)之主要目的係將製氣油之含硫量降低至0.5wt%以下,包括硫醇(RSH)、有機硫化物(RSSR)及環狀硫化物(Thiophene),以作為低硫燃料油,或作為媒裂工場進料以生產觸媒裂解汽油。油品高值化為中油公司暨定之研究目標。
因此本研究擬進行RDS成品油之高值化,對於其常壓蒸餾範圍介於360℃-454℃者,藉由溶劑萃取方式脫除芳香烴和脫蠟方法脫除高碳數直鏈烷烴,剩下之蒸餾油可作為潤滑油之基礎油。
本研究擬探討溶劑萃取法之實驗變數包括:溶劑種類、萃取接觸時間、萃取溫度、溶劑/RDS成品油之體積比例、萃取次數及萃取反應器,並以氣體層析/質譜儀分析溶劑萃取所得之成份,另使用真空濃縮機進行溶劑分離以檢測萃取物之重量,作為判定萃取效果之依據。並探討脫蠟法之實驗變數:脫蠟溶劑種類、脫蠟接觸時間、脫蠟溫度。另以蠟的重量作為判定脫蠟效果之依據並使用高效液相色谱法分析脫蠟成品油。此外超音波輔助溶劑萃取法與溶劑脫蠟法各操作變數之影響力,擬利用田口方法與一次一因子實驗方法加以剖析,進而建立萃取操作變數之最適化技術。

The objective of hydrogenation of heavy fuel oil fordesulfuration process (RDS) is to reduce the sulfur content of vacuum gas oil to 0.5wt%, which include mercaptan, organic sulfide and thiophene. The product of RDS process would be served as low-sulfur fuel oil or as the feedstock of catalytic cracking process for generation of gasoline.
In this study, the product from RDS process would be upgraded, wherein the light part among the range of 360℃-454℃ using vacuum distillation would be served as base oil of lubricant after elimination of aromatics by means of solvent extraction and elimination of High-carbon parrafins by means of solvent dewaxing.
In this research, the operating variables of solvent extraction method will be investigated, including solvent species, solvent contact time, operating temperature, solvent/RDS product ratio, extraction stage and extraction apparatus. The components in the extract would be identified using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Besides, the weight of extract would be disclosed using a vacuum concentrator. The operating variables of solvent dewaxing method will be investigated, including solvent dewaxing species, solvent dewaxing contact time, operating temperature dewaxing, The effect of dewaxing would be determined by wax weight. Besides, the product in the dewaxing would be identified using a high performance liquid chromatography. Further, the influencing importance of each operating parameter would be discovered using the optimal operating conditions would be established. Further, Ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction and solventde waxing influencing importance of each operating parameter would be discovered using the Taguchi’s orthogon alarrays Methods and One-factor-at-a-time experiments Methods the optimal operating conditions would be established.

中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究動機 1
1-2研究目的與方法 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1石油基潤滑油來源 3
2-2原油分類 4
2-3原油煉製成基礎油的程序 5
2-3-1脫臘 6
2-3-2脫柏油 7
2-3-3溶劑精煉 7
2-4潤滑基礎油[13] 11
2-5橡膠軟化油 16
2-6重油加氫脫硫製程(RDS) 16
2-7溶劑萃取法 17
2-7-1萃取簡介 17
2-7-2溶劑萃取法簡介 19
2-7-3萃取溶劑之選擇 19
2-7-4溶劑萃取之操作方法 21
2-8超音波的介紹 24
2-8-1超音波的基本性質 24
2-8-2超音波聲化學的反應理論 26
2-9田口品質工程 28
2-9-1田口方法發展歷史 28
2-9-2基本概念 28
2-9-3品質損失函數 28
2-9-4品質特性與參數 29
2-9-4品質特性與參數 30
2-9-5田口品質工程三階段 31
2-9-6直交表 33
2-9-7信號雜音比 35
第三章 實驗方法 36
3-1實驗材料 36
3-1-1 RDS成品油 36
3-1-2實驗藥品 36
3-1-3實驗設備 37
3-1-4實驗裝置圖 38
3-2實驗步驟 40
3-2-1萃取溶劑選擇之實驗步驟 41
3-2-2萃取操作溫度之實驗步驟 41
3-2-3萃取接觸時間之實驗步驟 42
3-2-4溶劑/RDS成品油體積比例之實驗步驟 42
3-2-5萃取次數之實驗步驟 43
3-2-6超音波功率之實驗步驟 43
3-2-7萃取反應器之實驗步驟 43
3-2-8脫蠟溫度之實驗步驟 44
3-2-9脫蠟時間之實驗步驟 44
3-3實驗分析方法 45
3-3-1氣體層析/質譜儀(GC/MS) 45
3-3-2 高效液相層析儀(HPLC) 45
3-3-3真空濃縮機之溶劑分離 45
第四章 結果與討論 46
4-1萃取效應的選擇 46
4-1-1萃取溶劑選擇之影響 46
4-1-2萃取反應器之影響 48
4-2田口實驗結果 49
4-2-1品質特性 49
4-2-2 S/N比計算 51
4-2-2操作溫度效應 53
4-2-3接觸時間效應 54
4-2-4超音波功率效應 55
4-2-5反應器口徑效應 56
4-3萃取最佳化效應 57
4-3-1溶劑/RDS成品油體積比較效應 57
4-3-2萃取次數效應 59
4-4溶劑脫蠟效應 61
4-4-1溶劑脫蠟溫度效應 61
4-4-2溶劑脫蠟時間效應 62
4-5金相顯微鏡分析 63
4-6 GC/MS分析結果 64
4-6-1萃取反應器之比較分析 64
4-6-2脫蠟溶劑之比較分析 66
4-7 HPLC分析結果 70
第五章 結論 73
參 考 文 獻 75


參 考 文 獻
[1]N. Elbashir, S. Al-Zahrani, M. Abdul Mutalib, and A. Abasaeed, "A method of predicting effective solvent extraction parameters for recycling of used lubricating oils," Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, vol. 41, pp. 765-769, 2002.
[2]N. Mohamed, M. Zaky, A. Farag, and A. Fahmy, "Separation of paraffin wax using solvent fractionation," Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 26, pp. 562-574, 2008.
[3]R. S. Kuliev and I. Veliev, "Dewaxing of the lube fraction using methyl isobutyl ketone," Chemistry and technology of fuels and oils, vol. 35, pp. 347-349, 1999.
[4]M. T. Zaky, N. H. Mohamed, and A. S. Farag, "Separation of different paraffin wax grades using two comparative deoiling techniques," Fuel processing technology, vol. 88, pp. 913-920, 2007.
[5]W.-S. Chen, W.-C. Chiang, and C.-C. Lai, "Recovery of nitrotoluenes in wastewater by solvent extraction," Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 145, pp. 23-29, 2007.
[6]D. Tarasov, A. Pereverzev, G. Kaganer, and N. Lutsenko, "Treatment of paraffin waxes by selective solvent extraction," Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, vol. 11, pp. 428-431, 1975.
[7]J.-Z. Dong, T. Katoh, H. Itoh, and K. Ouchi, "n-Paraffins obtained by extraction and mild stepwise hydrogenation of Wandoan coal," Fuel, vol. 65, pp. 1073-1078, 1986.
[8]A. Al Nagar and E. El Shamy, "Base Oil Production. Part II: Dewaxing, Finishing, and Blending," Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 25, pp. 853-866, 2007.
[9]W. Lijun and П. Ольков, "The Effect of Distillation Range Width of VGO on Solvent Refining and Solvent Dewaxing," Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, vol. 35, pp. 41-45, 2004.
[10]M. Sh. El-Gayar, A.-M. Ahmed, G. Gohar, A. Hegazi, H. Ibrahim, and A. Aly, "The Improvement of the Quality of Raffinate Obtained from Solvent Extraction of Lubricating Oils," Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 28, pp. 1434-1444, 2010.
[11]M. T. Zaky and S. M. Tawfik, "Production of lubricating base oil from slop wax by different subsequent refining techniques," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, pp. 447-451, 2011.
[12]M. T. Zaky, N. H. Mohamed, and A. S. Farag, "Separation of some paraffin wax grades using solvent extraction technique," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, pp. 2024-2029, 2011.
[13]石油情報出版社. (2002). 石油及合成基潤滑油脂. Available: http://www.oil.net.tw/pip
[14]中國石油公司訓練所, 石油產品及其應用, 1995.
[15]D. Skoog, D. West, F. Holler, and S. Crouch, Fundamentals of analytical chemistry: Cengage Learning, 2013.
[16]M. Hudson, "An introduction to some aspects of solvent extraction chemistry in hydrometallurgy," Hydrometallurgy, vol. 9, pp. 149-168, 1982.
[17]D. S. Flett, "Solvent extraction in scrap and waste processing," Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 29, pp. 258-272, 1979.
[18]C. J. Geankoplis, Transport processes and unit operations: Allyn and Bacon Boston, 1983.
[19]陳振揚, 單 元 操 作: 三 民 書 局, 1990.
[20]賴耿陽, 超音波工學理論實務: 材料, 機械, 電機, 化學, 醫學, 各個分野之應用製作技術: 復漢出版社, 1999.
[21]賴耿陽, 超音波工學: 復文書局, 2005.
[22]鄭敬賢, "超音波場對活性碳液相吸附與脫附之影響," 元智大學化學工程與材料科學學系學位論文, pp. 1-82, 2004.
[23]N. Ince, G. Tezcanli, R. Belen, and I. G. Apikyan, "Ultrasound as a catalyzer of aqueous reaction systems: the state of the art and environmental applications," Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 29, pp. 167-176, 2001.
[24]H.-H. Lee, Taguchi Methods: Principles and Practices of Quality Design: Gau Lih Book Co. Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan, 2011.
[25]蘇朝墩, 品質工程: 中華民國品質學會, 2005.
[26]D. C. Montgomery, Design and analysis of experiments: John Wiley & Sons, 2008.
[27]吳復強, 產品穩健設計-田口方法之原理與應用: 全威圖書, 2005.
[28]李輝煌, 田口方法-品質設計的原理與實務: 高立圖書, 2008.
[29]D. W. Green, Perry's chemical engineers' handbook vol. 796: McGraw-hill New York, 2008.
[30]V. JOHNSON, "General Editor A compendium of the properties of materials at low temperatures National Bureau of Standards," WADD TR 60-561960.
[31]S. Both, F. Chemat, and J. Strube, "Extraction of polyphenols from black tea--conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction," Ultrason Sonochem, vol. 21, pp. 1030-4, May 2014.
[32]T. Li, X.-y. Qu, Q.-a. Zhang, and Z.-Z. Wang, "Ultrasound-assisted extraction and profile characteristics of seed oil from Isatis indigotica Fort," Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 35, pp. 98-104, 2012.
[33]P. Valachovic, A. Pechova, and T. J. Mason, "Towards the industrial production of medicinal tincture by ultrasound assisted extraction," Ultrason Sonochem, vol. 6, pp. 111-117, 2001.
[34]S. Samaram, H. Mirhosseini, C. P. Tan, and H. M. Ghazali, "Ultrasound-assisted extraction and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: Crystallization and thermal behavior, saturation degree, color and oxidative stability," Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 52, pp. 702-708, 2014.
[35]A. F. Barton, CRC handbook of solubility parameters and other cohesion parameters: CRC press, 1991.
[36]王永謙, 金文修, and 田久旺, 潤滑油基礎與應用: 金華科技圖書股份有限公司, 1995.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔