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研究生:葉美君
研究生(外文):Mei-Chun Yah
論文名稱:比較補充共軛亞麻油酸和運動對高油脂高膽固醇飲食之大鼠其紅血球變形度和發炎因子之影響
論文名稱(外文):Beneficial comparison between Conjugated Linoleic Acid supplement and exercise training in erythrocyte deformability and inflammation of rats fed with high fat and high cholesterol diets
指導教授:梁弘人梁弘人引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hong-Jen Liang, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元培科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:高油脂高膽固醇共軛亞麻油酸運動血液流變紅血球變形度發炎因子脂質過氧化紅血球聚集度血液黏度
外文關鍵詞:high fathigh cholesterolconjugated linoleic acidexerciseblood viscosityerythrocyte aggregationerythrocyte deformabilityinflammatory factorslipid peroxidation
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高油脂高膽固醇飲食是造成代謝症候群主要危險因子之一。許多研究顯示補充機能性食物和規律運動可顯著預防或改善代謝症候群相關疾病。機能性脂質共軛亞麻油酸 (conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)與規律運動已被分別證實具有改善脂質代謝、降低體脂肪與血脂肪及抗發炎之功效。然而對於兩者功效比較之相關文獻相對缺乏。目前並無研究比較規律運動與補充共軛亞麻油酸對因攝取高油脂高膽固醇 (high fat and high cholesterol diet,HFC)所引起之異常血液流變性質及發炎反應的影響。本研究欲探討兩部分,首先在每組攝取相同熱量的飲食下(HFC1),比較補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食之血液流變異常,脂質代謝異常和發炎因子異常之功效作探討;第二部分為探討CLA在HFC1多攝取73.26 g的脂肪及熱量的餵食(HFC2)所造成影響血液流變和脂質代謝之差異作探討。實驗一以HFC餵食的Wistar大鼠為實驗模組進行為期九週實驗。本次實驗控制每組攝取熱量相同,以達到避免熱量不同影響實驗。實驗共分為五組正常飲食對照組 (CON)、高油脂高膽固醇飲食組 (HFC1)、高油脂高膽固醇飲食補充共軛亞麻油酸組 (HFC1-CLA)、高油脂高膽固醇飲食運動組 (HFC1-EX)。以跑步方式進行運動訓練,以時速15米/分鐘的速度跑30分鐘,每週進行6天,實驗為期9週。9週後進行血液生化值、流變性質及血清發炎因子分析。為瞭解補充CLA在高熱量高脂肪飲食 (HFC2)上對改善異常血液流變的效果,實驗組以相同飼料配方為基礎,餵食方式採每組相同飼量模式進行,同樣以Wistar大鼠進行為期九週實驗,HFC2和HFC1雖然飼料配方相同,但由於攝食量方式不同,HFC2會比HFC1額外攝取5990.985 kJ。實驗共分別為正常飲食對照組 (CON)、高熱量高脂肪飲食組 (HFC2)、高熱量高脂肪飲食補充共軛亞麻油酸組 (HFC2-CLA),9週後進行血液生化值和流變性質分析。結果顯示在每組攝取熱量相同條件下,HFC1會降低紅血球變形度和增加血液黏度,此外會增加血清中三酸甘油酯 (triglycerides,TG)、總膽固醇 (total cholesterol,TC)、低密度脂蛋白膽固醇 (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,LDL-C) ,且降低高密度脂蛋白膽固醇 (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,HDL-C);同時還增加血清中發炎因子interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β)、interleukin-6 (IL-6)和tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)、肝臟和紅血膜的膽固醇,以及降低紅血球膜的磷脂質。補充1 % (w/w)CLA會改善紅血球變形度、血清中TG、紅血球膜脂質過氧化 (malondialdehyde,MDA)、紅血球膜磷脂質和發炎因子 (IL-1 β、IL-6和TNF-α),但在TC、LDL-C和HDL-C上沒有顯著的修復功效。而運動可以改善紅血球變形度並且降低血液黏度,此外還降低血清TG和LDL-C、紅血球膜MDA,且降低部分發炎因子 (IL-6和TNF-α)。在攝取相同熱量模式中降低血脂部分,運動比CLA有效 。餵食九週後高熱量HFC2的結果顯示 HFC2與HFC1飲食相比,造成更明顯的最終體重、肝重和脂肪重增加,血清中TG、TC和LDL-C濃度上升,血清、紅血球膜和肝臟MDA增加,此外也造成更嚴重的血液流變異常 (降低紅血球變形度和增加血液度)。由於HFC2造成更顯著的血脂異常及血液流變異常結果,使HFC2-CLA擁有更顯著的功效於降低體脂肪,降低血清中TG和LDL-C濃度,降低血清、紅血球膜和肝臟MDA相對及降低血液流變異常 (增加紅血球變形度和降低血液黏度)。
High fat and high cholesterol diet (HFC) is one of the major risk factors promoting metabolic syndrome. Numerous studies have shown that diets supplemented with functional components and regular physical exercise are effective ways to prevent or significantly improve metabolic syndrome. Functional lipid such as conjugated linoleic acid and regular physical exercise have been shown to improve lipid metabolism, reduce body fat and blood lipid profile and have anti-inflammatory effect. However, the helthy benefits of physical exercise and CLA supplement are studied individually in most of literatures without systematic comparison. Especially studies regarding differential influence of exercise and CLA on HFC-induced impaired hemorheological properties and inflammatory are relatively scarce. The present study are divided into the two parts investigating differential influence of exercise and CLA. The first study was to investigate the effect of regular excise and CLA 1% (w/w) supplementation on the impaired haemorheological parameters and inflammatory profile of rats fed HFC diets based on equivalent caloric intake (HFC1). The second study was to investigate the differential influence of CLA on haemorheological parameters of lipid metabolism under diets containing increased lipid content (73.6g) and calories (HFC2).In experiment 1, male wistar rats fed with HFC1 based on the equivalent calories for nine weeks. The experiment one was divided into five groups of normal diet control group (CON), high fat and high cholesterol diet group (HFC1), high fat and high cholesterol diet supplement conjugated linoleic acid group (HFC1-CLA), high fat and high cholesterol diet exercise group (HFC1-EX). Exercise trained male Wistar rats (450–500 g) were run on a treadmill at 15 m/min, 6 days/wk for 9 weeks.The blood lipid profiles, haemorheological parameters and serum pro-inflammatory factors levels of rats were measured after 9 weeks feeding. Experiment 2 intended to investigate the differential influence of CLA supplementation under HFC2 diet with higher calories (5990.985 kJ) and lipid content (73.26g) based on the same formulation of HFC1 diets.The second experiment were divided into three groups of normal diet control group (CON), high calorie and high fat diet group (HFC2), high calorie and high fat diet supplement conjugated linoleic acid group (HFC2-CLA). Analysis of blood biochemical profile, serum pro-inflammatory factors and haemorheological parameters were carried out after 9 weeks feeding. The results showed that HFC1 diets compared to the controls showed decreased erythrocyte deformability, and increased blood viscosity, blood lipid profiles including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), proinflammatory factors levels including interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cholesterol levels of liver and erythrocyte membrane. Reduced phospholipid levels of erythrocyte membrane. 1% (w/w) CLA supplementstion significantly improved erythrocyte deformabiliy, serum TG levels, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) levels, erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and proinflammatory cytokine levels IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α but did not have improving effects in lowering blood lipid profile TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Exercise training significantly improved erythrocyte deformability and reduce blood viscosity, in addition to significantly reduced TG and LDL-C levels, erythrocyte membrane MDA, and part of the inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Exercise has more profound effects than that of CLA supplementation in improving lipid metabolism under equivalent calories of HFC intake. HFC2 in comparison with the HFC1 caused more increased body weight, liver weight, fat weight, impaired blood lipid profiles including increased TG, TC, and LDL-C, MDA levels of serum, liver, and erythrocyte membrane, respectively, with more impaired. Haemorheological parameters (reduce erythrocyte deformability and increased blood viscosity). CLA supplementation has more profound effects on reducing body fat, serum TG and LDL-C levels, MDA levels of serum, liver, and erythrocyte membrane, and improving hemorrheological abnormalities (increased erythrocyte deformability and reduce blood viscosity).
致謝 I
中文摘要 Ⅱ
英文摘要 V
目錄 VIII
圖目錄 XIII
表目錄 XVI
英文縮寫 XVII
第一章、前言 1
1.1 高油脂高膽固醇飲食 (high fat and high cholesterol diet,HFC) 1
1.1.1 HFC飲食和代謝症候群 (metabolic syndrome,MS) 2
1.1.2 HFC、MS與發炎和氧化壓力反應之相關性 5
1.2 血液流變學 (Hemorheology) 9
1.2.1流體性質 9
1.2.2血液黏度 11
1.2.3紅血球膜變形度 (erythrocyte membrane deformability) 14
1.2.4 HFC、MS與血液流變之相關性 17
1.3改善HFC飲食所造成MS 19
1.4共軛亞麻油酸 (conjugated linoleic acid,CLA) 20
1.4.1組成與來源 20
1.4.2CLA生物機能性 22
1.4.3CLA抗發炎特性 23
1.4.3 CLA抗氧化特性 24
1.5運動 (Exercise) 26
1.5.1 運動功效 26
1.5.2運動與抗發炎、抗氧化功效 27
1.5.3運動與血液流變之影響 29
第二章、研究目的 30
第三章、材料方法 33
3.1 實驗材料 33
3.2 實驗儀器 34
3.3動物飼養 35
3.4實驗飲食 35
3.5運動訓練方法 37
3.6實驗設計與實驗組別 38
3.7 熱量差異 42
3.8 樣品採集 43
3.9 樣品處理 43
3.10樣品分析 44
3.10.1血漿與全血黏度測定 44
3.10.2紅血球變形度測定 45
3.10.3紅血球聚集能力測定 45
3.10.4丙二醛 (malondialdehyde,MDA)測定 46
3.10.5血清總膽固醇分析 47
3.10.6肝臟三酸甘油酯測定 47
3.10.7血清發炎因子TNF-α、IL-1β、IL-6測定 47
3.10.8血清血脂生化測定 47
3.10.9統計分析 48
第四章、結果 49
4.1補充CLA和運動對HFC1飲食大鼠血液流變參數之影響 49
4.2補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食大鼠體重和血脂之影響 49
4.3補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食大鼠血漿、紅血球膜和肝臟脂質過氧化之影響 50
血漿、紅血球膜和肝臟 50
4.4 補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食大鼠紅血球膜和肝臟磷脂質之影響 50
4.5 補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食大鼠紅血球膜和肝臟膽固醇之影響 51
4.6 補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食大鼠紅血球膜和肝臟膽固醇磷脂質比值之影響 51
4.7補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食大鼠血清中發炎因子IL-1 β、IL-6和TNF-α之影響 52
4.8補充CLA和運動對HFC飲食大鼠肝臟三酸甘油酯之影響 52
4.9相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA大鼠血液流變參數之影響 53
4.10 相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA對大鼠體重和血脂之影響 53
4.11相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA對大鼠血漿、紅血球膜和肝臟脂質過氧化之影響 54
4.12 相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA對大鼠紅血球膜和肝臟磷脂質之影響 55
4.13相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA對大鼠紅血球膜和肝臟膽固醇之影響 55
4.14相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA對大鼠紅血球膜和肝臟膽固醇磷脂質比值之影響 56
第五章、討論 57
5.1 補充CLA和運動對HFC1飲食大鼠其血液流變參數之影響 57
5.2 補充CLA和運動對HFC1飲食大鼠其體重和脂質代謝之影響 58
5.3 補充CLA和運動對HFC1飲食大鼠其血清中發炎因子之影響 60
5.4相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA對大鼠血液流變參數之影響 61
5.5相同飼量不同脂肪熱量模式下補充CLA對大鼠體重和脂質代謝之影響 62
第六章、結論 66
第七章、參考文獻 69
第八章、附圖 83

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台灣衛生局國民健康署http://www.hpa.gov.tw/BHPNet/Web/HealthTopic/TopicArticle.aspx?No=200712250123&parentid=200712250023

行政院衛生署. 國民營養調查https://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Pages/List.aspx?nodeID=92

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吳幸娟、潘文涵、葉乃華、張新儀、洪淑怡. (2009)台灣成人與老營養素及食物攝取來源之變遷趨勢:由 NASHIT 1993~1996 到 2005~2008.https://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Files/doc/台灣成人與老人營養素及食物攝取來源之變遷趨勢:由NASHIT%201993~1996到2005~2008(102.6.14更新).pdf.

張育綺 (2011)。磷脂質攝取對高脂肪飲食大鼠血液流變性質之影響。碩士論文,元培科技大學,新竹市。

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