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研究生:張昱閎
研究生(外文):YU-HUNG CHANG
論文名稱:針對固態硬碟測試所提出之低成本架構
論文名稱(外文):A Low-Cost Architecture for SSD Testing
指導教授:顏金泰
指導教授(外文):JIN-TAI YAN
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:51
中文關鍵詞:固態硬碟快閃記憶體Flexstar
外文關鍵詞:SSDNAND Flash MemoryFlexstar
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:156
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:25
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
傳統硬碟係使用磁軌來儲存資料,在使用時才讀入記憶體以提供CPU進行運算,為了提高資料與程式的存取時間,固態硬碟( Solid State Drive )改以快閃記憶體( NAND Flash Memory )來當作基本儲存元件,使其有存儲速度快及抗震性佳等優點,進而逐漸取代傳統式硬碟成為電腦之主流存儲產品。
儘管快閃記憶體的售價逐漸下降,為確保產品有足夠的穩定性及相容性,還是必須考慮使用SSD當作儲存媒體。因此,SSD製造商必須花費大量資金購買複雜的測試設備以驗證SSD之主要功能。據我所知,複雜的測試設備非常昂貴,且測試流程需要花費大量的時間。
在本論文中,我們提出一個以傳統桌上型電腦及利用磁碟擴充卡( Host Bus Adapter )所建構的測試架構,減少開發成本。與傳統Flexstar專業測試機台相較,低成本架構亦可提供相同的測試流程,且成本可節省約58%,縮短測試時間最高達56%。

Traditionally, data and programs are stored on magnetic track in a hard disk and loaded into memory for CPU execution. To improve the access time of the data and programs, SSD(Solid State Drive) disk is developed to use flash memory as fundamental storage element. It has shorter access time and better shock resistance for data and SSD disks more and more become the main storage in computer systems.
Although the price of flash memory gradually declines, the stability and compatibility in flash memory must be seriously considered in SSD products. Hence, the SSD companies have to buy the complicated testing equipment to verify the necessary features of the SSD products. To my knowledge, the complicated testing equipments are expensive and the testing flow in the testing equipments is very time-consuming.
In the thesis, a PC-based testing architecture includeing testing computers and HBA (Host Bus Adapter) cards is proposed to reduce the development cost of the testing flow. Compared with the traditional Flexstar testing equipment, the proposed low-cost testing architecture can achieve the same testing flow. Beside that, proposed low-cost testing architecture can save 58% of the test cost, and reduce 56% of the test time.

摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iv
致 謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
第一章 簡介 1
1.1 快閃記憶體 4
1.2 固態硬碟組成概述 6
1.3 傳統硬碟與固態硬碟寫入特性 8
1.4 垃圾回收機制 11
1.5 檔案系統與實體資料層 12
1.6 耗損平均技術 13
1.7 測試的重要性 14
1.8 製造流程與測試階段 15
第二章 研究與動機 17
2.1 測試成本 17
2.2 測試機台概況 19
2.3 傳統測試機台成本概算 21
2.4 研究動機 22
2.5 可行性評估 22
2.6 問題描述 23
第三章 低成本架構之硬體平台構建 25
3.1 集中式架構與分散式架構 25
3.1 傳統測試機台與低成本平台建構之差異 27
3.1.1 Flexstar 416B 測試主機之細部架構 27
3.1.2 低成本平台之細部架構 29
3.2序列先進技術附接(Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, SATA )與快速週邊組件互連(Peripheral Component Interconnect Express, PCI- E)之差異 31
3.2.1 序列先進技術附接(Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, SATA) 31
3.2.2 快速週邊組件互連(Peripheral Component Interconnect Express, PCI-E) 33
3.2 低成本架構之成本分析 36
第四章 低成本架構於測試流程之實作 38
4.1 可靠性測試之實作 38
4.1.1 Trim指令測試環境建置 38
4.1.2 Trim指令測試程序 39
4.1.3 資料比對測試環境建置 39
4.1.4 資料比對測試程序 40
4.2 可用性測試之實作 40
4.2.1 效能測試環境建置 40
4.2.2 效能測試程序 41
4.2.3 電源保護測試環境建置 41
4.2.4 電源保護測試程序 42
4.3 耐用性測試之實作 43
4.3.1 耗損平均測試環境建置 43
4.3.2 耗損平均測試環境程序 44
第五章 實驗結果 45
5.1 Trim指令測試 45
5.2 資料比對測試 46
5.3 效能測試 47
5.4 電源保護測試 48
5.5 耗損平均測試 48
第六章 結論及未來展望 49
參考文獻 50

[1] S. Park, “An Efficient Wear‐Leveling Scheme for Flash Memory”, US‐Korea Conference on Science, Technology, and Entrepreneurship, pp.15-20, 2005.
[2] G. Kim and D. Shin, “Performance Analysis of SSD Write using Trim in NTFS and Ext4”, International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology (ICCIT), pp. 422-423, 2011.
[3] T. Frankie, G. Hughes, and K. Kreutz-Delgado, “A Mathematical Model of the Trim Command in Nand-Ash SSDs”, 50th Annual Southeast Regional Conference, pp. 59-64, 2012.
[4] Carlos J. Gonzalez, and Los Gatos, “Automated Wear Leveling in Non‐Volatile Storage Systems” SanDisk Corporation, United States Patent, (US7120729 B2), 2006.
[5] “Sandisk Flash Memory Cards Wear Leveling”, SanDisk Corporation Technical Report, 2003.
[6] “K9F1208U0C 64M x 8 Bits NAND Flash Memory Data Sheet”, Samsung Electronics Technical Report, 2006.
[7] “K9NBG08U5M 1G x 8 Bit / 2G x 8 Bit / 4G x 8 Bit NAND Flash Memory Data Sheet”, Samsung Electronics Technical Report, 2005.
[8] “K9GAG08U0M 1G x 8 Bit / 2G x 8 Bit NAND Flash Memory Data Sheet (Preliminary)”, Samsung Electronics Technical Report, 2006.
[9] C. Hyun, J. Choi, D. Lee, and S. H. Noh, “To Trim or not to Trim: Judicious Trimming for Solid State Drives”, Samsung Electronics Technical Report, pp.27-36, 2006.
[10] A. Kawaguchi, S. Nishioka, and H. Motoda,”A Fash-Memory Based File System”, USENIX Technical Conference, 1995.
[11] S.W.Lee, B.Moon, C.Park, J.M.Kim, and S.W. Kim, ”A Case for Flash Memory SSD in Enterprise Database Applications,” SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp.1075-1086, 2006.
[12] L. P. Chang and T. W. Kuo, "Efficient Management for Large-Scale Flash-Memory Storage Systems with Resource Conservation," ACM Transactions on Storage, Volume 1, Issue 4, 2005.
[13] S. Jung, Y. Lee, and Y. Song, “A Process-Aware Hot/Cold Identification Scheme for Flash Memory Storage Systems”, IEEE Consumer Electronics, pp.339-347, 2010.
[14] H. S. Lee, H. S. Yun, and D. H. Lee, “HFTL: Hybrid Flash Translation Layer Based on Hot Data Identification for Flash Memory”, IEEE Consumer Electronics, pp.2005-2011, 2009.
[15] N. Jeremic, G. Mühl, A. Busse, and J. Richling, "Enabling TRIM Support in SSD RAIDs," Technical Report Department of Computer Science, 2011.
[16] C. Park, W. Cheon, et al., "A Reconfigurable FTL (Flash Translation Layer) Architecture for NAND Flash-Based Applications." ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), pp.38-45, 2008.
[17] http://www.gartner.com
[18] http://www.mem.com.tw/article_content.asp?sn=0708270011
[19] http://www.hardware.fr/articles/934-1/taux-retour-composants-12.html
[20] http://www.techbang.com/posts/18043-16-15nm-process-flash-have-been-published-ssd-will-be-imported-in-the-future
[21] https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/PCI_Express
[22] https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/SATA
[23] http://www.liteon.com

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