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研究生:劉潤萍
研究生(外文):Jun-Ping Liu
論文名稱:國小學童飲食攝取相關因素與衝動性格和攻擊行為之相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):Associations of the Dietary Intake Related Factors to Impulsive Personality and Aggressive Behavior among the Elementary SchoolChildren
指導教授:鄭裕耀張宜 平
指導教授(外文):Yu-Yao ChengYi-Ping Chang
口試委員:吳幸娟劉嘉蕙鄭 裕 耀張 宜 平
口試委員(外文):Xing-Juan WuJia-Hui LiuYu-Yao ChengYi-Ping Chang
口試日期:2015-07-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:嘉南藥理大學
系所名稱:保健營養系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:國小學童飲食攝取習慣飲食偏好衝動性格攻擊行為
外文關鍵詞:elementary school studentsdietary intake habitfood preferenceimpulsive personalityaggressive behavior
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文獻顯示,蔬果攝取不足,且偏愛高熱量油炸食物和含糖飲料者,會因身體所需營養素欠缺,易使人在情緒控制上有不穩定的現象。本研究目的在探討學童飲食攝取相關因素與衝動性格和攻擊行為之相關性研究。以台南某國小高年級學童(五和六年級)為研究對象,採方便取樣方式共招募146人(男生81人,佔55.5%;女生65人,佔44.5%)。以問卷做為研究調查工具,由學生和家長自主填寫方式進行。問卷內容包含飲食攝取習慣、飲食偏好、衝動性格和攻擊行為四部份。本研究重要發現:飲食攝取習慣與飲食偏好之間有顯著正相關存在(r=0.608﹐p=0.000);衝動性格與攻擊行為之間有顯著正相關(r=0.718﹐p=0.000);飲食攝取習慣與衝動性格有顯著負相關存在(r=- 0.370﹐p=0.000);及飲食偏好與衝動性格有顯著負相關(r=- 0.396﹐p=0.000)。飲食攝取習慣與整體衝動性格有顯著差異(F=5.56﹐p=0.005);飲食偏好與整體衝動性格有顯著差異(F=8.46﹐p=0.000);衝動性格與整體飲食攝取習慣(F=11.06﹐p=0.000)有顯著差異;衝動性格與整體飲食偏好有顯著差異(F=11.85﹐p=0.000);衝動性格與飲食攝取習慣之一天攝取至少三小碟蔬菜有顯著差異(F=7.48﹐p=0.001)、一天攝取至少二份水果(F=6.29﹐p=0.002)、有攝取深綠色蔬菜(F=8.14﹐p=0.000)、有攝取如蘋果和奇異果等水果(F=6.52﹐p=0.002)與有攝取如南瓜子和核桃等食物(F=8.79﹐p=0.000)皆有顯著差異;衝動性格與飲食偏好之吃魚(F=5.06﹐p=0.008)、吃海鮮(F=4.32﹐p=0.015)、吃豆類食物(F=4.49﹐p=0.013)、吃速食(F=6.08﹐p=0.003)與喝含糖飲料(F=7.12﹐p=0.001)皆有顯著差異;攻擊行為與飲食攝取習慣之一天攝取至少三小碟蔬菜有顯著差異(F=3.71﹐p=0.027);攻擊行為與飲食偏好之吃速食(F=3.52﹐p=0.032)、喝含糖飲料(F=7.28﹐p=0.001)皆有顯著差異;攻擊行為與整體飲食偏好有顯著差異(F=3.66﹐p=0.028)。本研究建議,若能教育學童使其降低對攝取高熱量低營養密度食物,包括高油速食和含糖飲料之喜好度,且每天至少攝取三碟的蔬菜量,對學童衝動性格與攻擊行為的不良表現上,有改善的可能性。
關鍵字:國小學童、飲食攝取習慣、飲食偏好、衝動性格、攻擊行為

According to the literature, the individuals who had insufficient intakes of fruits and vegetables, and preferred to eat high-calorie fried foods and sugar-sweetened beverages are more prone to have unstable emotional control.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the associations of the dietary intake related factors to impulsive personality and aggressive behavior among the elementary school children. A total of 146 5th- & 6th-grade students (81 boys, 55.5%; 65 girls,44.5% ) were recruited, by convenience sampling. Self-reported questionnaires of students and parents were employed as measuring tools. The questionnaire included four parts: dietary intake habits, food preferences, impulsive personality and aggressive behavior. The results showed that the dietary intake habits positively correlated with food preferences (r=0.608, p=0.000),and the impulsive personality positively correlated with the aggressive behavior(r=0.718, p=0.000).The dietary intake habits and food preferences had negative correlation with the impulsive personality (r= - 0.370, p=0.000 and r= - 0.396, p=0.000, respectively). The dietary intake habits had significant differences with the overall impulsive personality (F=5.56﹐p=0.005). The food preferences had significant differences with the overall impulsive personality (F=8.46﹐p=0.000) . The impulsivity was significantly different from the overall dietary intake habits (F=11.06﹐p=0.000). The impulsivity was significantly different from the overall the food preferences (F=11.85﹐p=0.000).The impulsive personality had significant differences with the dietary intake habit of eating at least three dishes vegetable each day (F=7.48﹐p=0.001). The impulsive personality had significant differences with the dietary intake habit of eating at least two servings of fruit each day (F=6.29﹐p=0.002). The impulsive personality had significant differences with the dietary intake habit of eating dark green vegetable (F=8.14﹐p=0.000). The impulsive personality had significant differences with the dietary intake habit of eating such as apples and kiwi fruit (F=6.52﹐p=0.002). The impulsive personality had significant differences with the dietary intake habit of eating foods such as pumpkin seeds and walnuts (F=8.79﹐p=0.000). The impulsivity also had differences from the preferences of eating fish (F=5.06﹐p=0.008), seafood (F=4.32﹐p=0.015), soy foods (F=4.49﹐p=0.013), fast foods (F=6.08﹐p=0.003), and drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (F=7.12﹐p=0.001). The impulsivity was significantly different from the dietary intake habits of vegetables and the overall dietary intake habits. The aggressive behavior was significant different from the dietary intake habits of eating at least three dishes vegetable each day (F=3.71﹐p=0.027). The aggressive behavior had significant differences with the food preferences of eating fast foods (F=3.52﹐p=0.032), drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (F=7.28﹐p=0.001), and the overall food preferences (F=3.66﹐p=0.028). The study suggested that it might improve the impulsive personality and aggressive behavior of school children by educating them to reducing their preferences of some high-calorie and low-nutrient density foods including fast foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which considered to have some health concerns, as well as eating at least three dishes vegetable each day.
Keywords: elementary school students, dietary intake habit, food preference,
impulsive personality, aggressive behavior

中文摘要 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅲ
誌謝-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅵ
目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅶ
表目錄---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Х
第一章 緒論------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與重要性------------------------------------------------------------------1
  第二節 研究目的---------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
第三節 研究問題---------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
  第四節 名詞釋義---------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
第二章 文獻探討-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
第一節 飲食習慣之意涵與相關研究--------------------------------------------------7
  第二節 衝動性格之意涵與相關研究------------------------------------------------- 10
第三節 攻擊行為之意涵與相關研究-------------------------------------------------13
  第四節 飲食攝取相關因素、衝動性格與攻擊行為之相關研究--------16
第三章 材料與方法-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
第一節 研究架構--------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
第二節 研究假設--------------------------------------------------------------------------------20
第三節 研究對象與資料收集--------------------------------------------------------------22
第四節 研究工具----------------------------------------------------------------------------------23
第五節 量表信效度------------------------------------------------------------------------------29
第六節 統計分析方法--------------------------------------------------------------------------31
第四章 結果與討論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
第五章 結論與建議-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------53
第一節 結論-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53
第二節 建議-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------56
第三節 研究限制------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60
附表-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75
附錄一、同意人體研究證明書--------------------------------------------------------------------129
附錄二、研究樣本數計算方式--------------------------------------------------------------------130
附錄三、問卷信度分析-------------------------------------------------------------------------------131
附錄四、衝動性格之四個因子--------------------------------------------------------------------132
附錄五、攻擊行為之三個因子----------------------------------------------------------133
附錄六、問卷量表使用同意書--------------------------------------------------------------------134
附錄七、受試者說明書-------------------------------------------------------------------------------135
附錄八、飲食習慣與生活行為問卷------------------------------------------------------------136

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