跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.110.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/24 07:19
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張哲誠
研究生(外文):Che-Cheng Chang
論文名稱:NBA之熱迷行為研究-以台灣球迷為例
論文名稱(外文):The Study of NBA Fans’ Behavior-Taiwan fans as an Example
指導教授:王如鈺王如鈺引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ru-Yuh Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:品牌知覺價值品牌忠誠度NBA熱迷行為運動行銷
外文關鍵詞:Brand LoyaltyNBAFans BehaviorPerceived Value of BrandSports Marketing
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:465
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在國內外眾多球類運動中,籃球是一項各年齡層所喜愛且瘋狂的運動賽事。在台灣,美國職業籃球聯盟(National Basketball Association, NBA)是最多人觀看的國際籃球賽事之一,也是世界最頂尖的職業籃球組織。其所販售的商品也使粉絲們相當喜愛,透過NBA迷的支持,不僅可以帶動周邊商品的發展也是球星與球隊的精神指標之一。
本研究利用SEM結構方程式來驗證品牌知覺價值、品牌忠誠度與熱迷行為之間關聯性,以「台灣NBA迷」為研究對象,研究發現:當消費者對品牌的知覺價值越高,則對該品牌忠誠度越高;當消費者之品牌忠誠越高,則熱迷行為越強烈;當消費者對品牌知覺價值越高,則熱迷行為些微正向但未達顯著。從實證中發現,NBA迷的品牌知覺價值中,以品質性最低愉悅性最高;品牌忠誠度方面則是以態度忠誠較高,代表NBA迷在心裡對於品牌的承諾大於實際上去購買商品;在熱迷行為方面則是以產品收藏較高,代表NBA迷除了會以口碑傳播行為外,也會利用產品的商藏來達到熱迷行為。
此外,研究中發現品牌忠誠度在NBA迷的品牌知覺價值與熱迷行為之間具有完全中介效果存在,代表品牌知覺價值對熱迷行為會完全受到品牌忠誠度的影響,NBA聯盟應持續維持NBA迷的品牌忠誠度外,必須透過創新的行銷手法來提高品牌忠誠度,並且提高品牌價值性,培養出忠誠度更高的粉絲。
Among all popular domestic sport games, basketball is the most favorite games in every ages. In Taiwan, the most of fans focus on National Basketball Association, and NBA is the top of the basketball association in the world. NBA products earns the most popularity, Furthermore, the supports of NBA fans can not only promote the development of products and it is the spiritual strength for the team and NBA all star players.
In this study, we use structural equation modeling to test the relationship among perceived value of brand, brand loyalty and fans behavior, and Taiwan NBA fans as the research target. The result of SEM show as following: The higher consumer perceived value of the brand, the higher brand loyalty is ; the higher consumer brand loyalty is, the stronger fans behavior is; the higher consumer perceived value of the brand, the fans behavior is Positive but not significance. In the BLI model, Perceived Quality is the lowest, Perceived Hedonic is the highest; and higher attitudinal loyalty in brand loyalty implies that the NBA Fans physically considered that the brand promise is more important than the purchase of products. In fans behavior show that NBA fans have higher product collection behavior, in order to reach fans behavior, they through the word-of-mouth and purchasing and collecting the NBA products.
In addition, the result also shows the brand loyalty has the Full mediation between brand perceived value and fans behavior. Brand perceived value to fans behavior will be completely influenced by brand loyalty. NBA should maintain fans brand loyalty and need to increase brand loyalty through innovative marketing techniques, and increase the value of the brand, cultivate a higher loyalty of fans.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 美國職業籃球歷史 5
第二節 品牌知覺價值 7
第三節 品牌忠誠度 13
第四節 熱迷行為 15
第五節 品牌知覺價值、品牌忠誠度及熱迷行為之關係 18
第三章 研究方法 20
第一節 研究架構 20
第二節 研究假設 21
第三節 研究變數操作型定義 22
第四節 問卷設計 24
第五節 資料分析方法 28
第四章 實證結果分析 31
第一節 敘述性統計分析 31
第二節 信度分析 42
第三節 驗證性因素分析 43
第四節 模式驗證與假設檢定 52
第五節 品牌忠誠度中介效果驗證 57
第六節 假設驗證結果 60
第五章 結論與建議 66
第一節 研究結論 66
第二節 管理意涵 68
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 70
參考文獻 71
附錄:問卷 79

表目錄
表1-1-1 NBA、MLB收視率比較 1
表2-1-1為NBA聯盟重要歷史 6
表2-2-1 台啤隊周邊商品 8
表2-2-2 品牌衡量彙整 9
表2-4-1 收藏行為消費價值 17
表3-3-1 變數操作型定義與衡量構面 22
表3-4-1 門檻題 24
表3-4-2 敘述性統計問項 24
表3-4-3 BLI品牌知覺價值 25
表3-4-4 品牌忠誠度 26
表3-4-5 熱迷行為問項 26
表4-1-1 基本資料 31
表4-1-2 獲得資訊來源(複選) 32
表4-1-3 每週蒐集資訊時間 33
表4-1-4 購買NBA週邊商品(複選) 33
表4-1-5 收藏NBA週邊商品時間 34
表4-1-6 收藏NBA週邊商品數量 34
表4-1-7 電視觀看球賽月平均次數 35
表4-1-8發表有關NBA文章月平均次數 35
表4-1-9回應有關NBA文章月平均次數 36
表4-1-10累積發表、回應文章次數 36
表4-1-11 狂熱迷之基本資料 37
表4-1-12 狂熱迷之週邊商品收藏、球賽觀賞以及網路傳播 38
表4-1-13 BLI品牌知覺價值之平均數與標準差 39
表4-1-14 品牌忠誠度之平均數與標準差 40
表4-1-15 熱迷行為之平均數與標準差 41
表4-2-1 各構面之Cronbach’s α值 42
表4-3-1 整體模式配適度指標 43
表4-3-2 BLI品牌知覺價值未刪題前整體配適度判斷 44
表4-3-3 BLI品牌知覺價值刪題後配適度判斷 45
表4-3-4 品牌忠誠度未刪題前整體配適度判斷 45
表4-3-5 品牌忠誠度刪題後整體配適度判斷 46
表4-3-6 熱迷行為未刪題前整體配適度判斷 47
表3-4-7 熱迷行為刪題後整體配適度判斷 47
表4-3-8 BLI品牌知覺價值測量模式分析 49
表4-3-9 品牌忠誠度測量模式分析 50
表4-3-10 熱迷行為測量模式分析 50
表4-3-11 區別效度測量 51
表4-4-1 問項修正對照表 52
表4-4-2 整體模式配適度 55
表4-4-3 修正後模式路徑結果 56
表4-6-1 研究假設檢定結果 60
表4-6-2 台啤迷樣本之基本資料 62
表4-6-3 NBA迷與台啤迷BLI之問項平均數比較 63
表4-6-4 NBA迷與台啤迷品牌忠誠度之問項平均數比較 64
表4-6-5 NBA迷與台啤迷熱迷行為之問項平均數比較 65
表5-1-1 各構面路徑結果 66

圖目錄
圖1-3-1 研究流程 4
圖3-1-1 研究架構 20
圖4-4-1「BLI品牌知覺價值」修正後模式路徑圖 53
圖4-4-2「品牌忠誠度」修正後模式路徑圖 54
圖4-4-3「熱迷行為」修正後模式路徑圖 54
圖4-4-4 整體模式路徑圖參數值 56
圖4-5-1 中介效果示意圖 57
圖4-5-2 中介效果驗證- BLI品牌知覺價值對品牌忠誠度 58
圖4-5-3 中介效果驗證- BLI品牌知覺價值對熱迷行為 58
圖4-5-4 中介效果驗證- 品牌忠誠度對熱迷行為 58
圖4-5-5 中介效果驗證- BLI品牌知覺價值與品牌忠誠度對熱迷行為 59
一、中文文獻
毕研嵩(2007).NBA海外市場拓展策略. 體育成人教育學刊 23(1), P19-20.
林雲燦, 林政憲, &; 涂榮宗. (2007). Are Your Sports Fans Loyalty in Brand? [運動球迷是否擁有品牌忠誠度]. 致遠管理論叢, 2(1),P99-112.
余承蒲(2013).品牌形象、品牌知名度對授權商品購買意願之研究─以美國職業籃球聯盟 (NBA) 為例. 國立臺灣師範大學運動休閒與餐旅管理研究所碩士論文
吳詩婷、簡文政(2015). 消費者歧視之探究-以美國職業籃球聯盟為例。調查研究-方法與應用 ; 33 期 (2015 / 04 / 01) , P7 - 32
許鈞閔(2011). Y世代消費者購買NBA明星代言鞋炫耀價值與購買動機之研究. 國立臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所碩士論文
謝依倩(2008)大學生觀賞NBA比賽之觀賞動機對球隊認同及購買意願影響之研究-以台中地區為例. 國立臺灣體育大學運動管理學系研究所碩士論文
陳重家(2011). NBA封館:危機與轉機。Yahoo運動 7月
鄭妃君、陳瑞龍(2012)。餐飲業服務品質、口碑傳播與再購意願之相關性研究。運動休閒餐飲研究,7 (4),P63-81。
中廣新聞網(2011). NBA 封館資方再讓步 勞方不領情。中廣新聞網 10 月
王如鈺、王仁宏、陳重佑 (2009),「知覺價值、品牌忠誠與熱迷行銷之研究-以HELLO KITTY迷為例」,2009年管理科學與應用研討會,廣州中山大學嶺南(大學)學院
王雅怡 (2006),中華職棒球隊品牌共鳴對球迷特定滿意、累積滿意與再購行為之中介探討,國立臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所碩士論文。
吳欣潔 (2010),品牌知覺價值、品牌忠誠度與熱迷行為之研究-以海角七號迷為例,中原大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
林妤蓁 (2011),品牌知覺價值、品牌忠誠度與熱迷行為之研究-以兄弟象迷為例,中原大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
林翠瑩 (2003),品牌形象、品牌關係品質與品牌忠誠度之關聯性研究-以零售業自有品牌為例,南台科技大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文
林建安、李一民、陳秀芬 (2008),「行為性品牌忠誠度對購買意願及口碑之影響-以金礦咖啡為例」,休閒暨觀光產業研究,P61-75。
林宗伯 (2005),行銷趨勢學之熱迷行銷,台北:創見文化。
李姿靜(2012).運動賽事迷之行為研究,以超級籃球聯賽之台啤隊迷為例,中原大學企業管理研究所碩士論文
林震岩 (2007),多變量分析: SPSS的操作與應用,台北:智盛文化。
莊麗娟 (1999),物質主義債向、消費價值觀與產品涉入對收藏行為影響之研究,私立元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
李東展 (2006),喬丹商品收藏迷的資訊尋求行為研究,世新大學資訊傳播學研究所碩士論文。
楊淳聿 (2006),奢侈品品牌奢侈表建構之研究,國立政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文
劉哲志 (2008),球隊品牌共鳴、負面訊息與球迷觀賞行為之相關研究-以中華職棒中信鯨隊為例,國立台灣體育大學(桃園)休閒產業經營學系碩士論文。
洪順慶 (2006),台灣品牌競爭力,台北:天下雜誌。
馬志工譯,Pamela N. Danziger原著,M 型社會新奢華行銷學,台北:臉譜出版社。
徐達光 (2004),消費者心理學
黃俊英 (2000),行銷管理—策略性的觀點,台北:華泰文化事業股份有限公司。
簡妙如 (1996),過度的閱聽人-「迷」之初探,國立中正大學電訊傳播所碩士論文。

二、英文文獻
Aaker, D. A.(1991), Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name. New York:The Free Press.
Agustin,C. &; Singh, J. (2005),”Curvilinear effects of consumer loyalty determinants in relational exchanges”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.42, No.1, pp.96-108.
Ahire, S. L., Golhar, D. Y., &; Waller, M. A. (1996), “Development and Validationof TQM Implementation Constructs,” Decision Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1996, pp. 23-56.
Anderson, J.C., &; D. W. Gerbing (1988), “Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommends Two-step Approach,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 103, No. 3, pp. 411-423.
Arndt, J. (1967), Word of Mouth Advertising: A Review of the Literature. New York: Advertising Research Federation.
Bagozzi, R. P. &; Y. Yi (1988), “On the Evaluation of Structure Equations Models,” Journal of Academy Marketing Science, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 76-94.
Baldinger, A. L. &; J., Rubinson (1996), “Brand Loyalty: The Link between Attitude and Behavior,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 22-34.
Bansal, H. S., &; Voyer, P. A. (2000). Word-of-mouth process within a service. purchase decision context. Journal of Service Research, 3(2), 166-177.
Baron, R. M. &; D. A. Kenny (1986), “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 1173-1182.
Belk, R. W. (1988), “Possessions and The Extended Self”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.15, No.1, pp.39-168
Belk, R. W. (1995), “Collecting as Luxury Consumption: Effects on Individuals and Households,” Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 16, pp. 477-490.
Brock, T. C. (1968), “Implications of Commodity Theory for Value Change”, in A. G. Greenward, T. C. Brock, and T. M. Ostrom (Eds.), Psychological Foundations of Attitudes, pp. 243-275.

Carman, J. M. ,(1970), “Correlates of Brand Loyalty:Some Positive Results”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.7, No.1,pp.67-76.
Chaudhuri, A. and Holbrook, M. B. (2001), “The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: TheRole of Brand Loyalty,” Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81-93.
Copeland, M. T. (1923).“Relation of Consumer’s Buying Habits to Marketing Method”, Harvard Business Review, Vol.1, No.1, pp.282-289.
Cunningham, R. M. (1956).”Brand loyalty-what, where, how much?”, Harvard Business Review, Vol.34,No.1, pp.116-128.
Dick, R. J., &; Turner, B. A. (2007). Are Fans and NBA Marketing Directors on the Same Page? A Comparison of Value of Marketing Techniques. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16(3), 140-146.
Dodds, W. B., K. B. Monroe &; D. Grewal (1991), “Effects of price, Brand and store information on Buyer’s Product Evaluations,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 307-319.
Dougals, M. &; Isherwood, B.(1979). The World of Goods. New York: Basic Books.
Drucker, P. F. (1990), Managing the Nonprofit Organization: Practices and Principles. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Dubois, B., Laurent, G., and Czellar, S. (2001), “Consumer Rapport to Luxury: Analyzing Complex and Ambivalent Attitudes”, Consumer Research Working Paper, No. 736, HEC, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
Durost, W. N. (1932). Children’s collecting activity related to social factors. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Colledge, Columbia University
Formanek, R. (1991),“Why the collect: Collectors reveal their motivations,” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 275-286.
Fredericks, J. O. &; J. M. Salter II (1995), “Beyond Customer Satisfaction,” Management Review, Vol.84, pp. 29-32.
Fornell, C. &; D. F. Larcker (1981), “Evaluating structural equation models with unbervables and measurement erroe,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 39-50.
Gale, B. T.(1994), Managing Customer Value, New York, NY: The Free Press.
Garfein, R. T. (1989), “Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the Dynamics of Prestige”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.3, No.1, pp.17-24.
Garvin, D. A.(1984),What does product quality really mean? Sloan Management
Gelb, B. D. &; S. Sundaram (2002), “Adapting to Word of Mouth,” Business Horizons, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 21-25.
Gelb, B., &; Johnson, M. (1995), “Word-of-mouth communication: causes and consequences.”, Journal of Health Care Marketing, Vol.15, No.3, pp.54-58.
Goldman, D.(1999) “Paradox of pleasure.” American Demographics, May 1999, ,5,pp.50-53
Grewal, D., &; A. Parasuraman (2000), “The Impact of Technology on the Quality-Value-Loyalty Chain: A Research Agenda,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 168-174.
Grossberg, L. (1992), “Is there a fan in the house? The Affective Sensibility of Fandom,” in Lewis, L. A. (Eds.), The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, New York: Routledge.
Gustafsson, Anders, Michael D. Johnson &; Inger Roos (2005), “The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Commitment Dimensions and Triggers on Customer Retention,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 210-218.
Hennig-Thurau, T., K. P. Gwinner, G. Walsh and D. D. Gremler (2004) “Electronic Word-of-Mouth Via Consumer-Opinion Platforms: What Motivates Consumers to Articulate Themselves on the Internet?” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol.18, No.1, pp.38-52.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., &; Black, W. C. (1998), Multivariate data analysis5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hepworth, M. &; Mateus, P. (1994) Connecting Customer Loyalty to The Bottom Line, Canadian Business Review, pp. 40-43.
Hills, M. (2002), Fan Cultures, New York: Routledge
Hirschman, E. C. and Holbrook, M. B. (1982), “Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods and Propositions”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.46, No.1,pp.92-101.
Janes, W. N. &; Sasser P. L. (1995). “Involvement, attributions, and consumer responses to rebates”, Journal Business and Psychology, Vol.9, No.3, pp.279-297.
Janes, W.N., &; Sasser, P. L. , 1995 , Involvement, attributions, and consuer responses to rebates. Journal business and Psychology, 9(3):279-297.
Jenkins, H. (1992), “Strangers No More, We Sing: Filking and the Social Construction of the Science Fiction Fan Community,” in Lewis, L. A. (Eds), The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, pp.208-236, New York: Routledge.
Joreskog, K. G. and D. Sorbom (1988), LISREL 7: A guide to the Program and Application, Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
Joreskog, K. G., &; Sorbom, D. (1986), LISREL 6: Analysis of linear structural relationships by maximum likelihood, instrumental variables, and least squares methods ( Ed.). Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.
Kapferer, J.-N. (1998),“Why Are We Seduced by Luxury Brands? ”Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 44-49.
Keller, K. L. (2001), “Building Customer-Based Brand Equity”, Marketing Management, Vol.10, No.2, pp.14-19.
Kiel, G. C. &; R. A., Layton (1981), “Dimensions of Consumer Search Information Seeking,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, pp. 233-239.
Konovsky, M. &; Cropanzano, R. (1991),“Perceived Fairness of Employee Drug Testing as a Predictor of Employee Attitudes and Job Performance, ”Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 76, No. 5, pp.698-707.
Kotler, P. (2000), Marketing Management (10th Ed.), Prentice Hall, Inc.
Lascu, D. N., &; Zinkhan, G. (1999), “Consumer conformity: Review and applications for marketing theory and practice,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 1-12.
Leibenstein, H. (1950), “ Bandwagon, Snobs and Veblen Effects in the Theory of Consumer’s Demand,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 64, pp. 183-207.
Lynn, M. (1991), “Scarcity Effects on Value: A Quantitative Review of the Commodity Theory Literature,” Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 45-57.
Mahony, D. F., Madrigal, R., &; Howard, D. R. (2000). Using the psychological commitment to team (PCT) scale to segment sport consumers based on loyalty. SportMarketing Quarterly, 9(1), 15-25.
Marsh, H., &; D. Howcevar (1985), “Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis to the study of Self-Concept: First-and Higher-Order Factor Models and Their Invariance across Groups,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 562-582.
Mason, R.(1981). Conspicuous Consumption. New York: St. Martin’s Press
Morgan, R. M. and S. D. Hunt (1994), “The Commitment-trust Theory of Relationship Marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.58, No.1, pp.20-38.
Mullin, B. J., Hardy, S., &; Sutton, W. A. (1993), Sport marketing. Human Kinetics, IL: Champaign.
Neal, William D. (1999), “Satisfaction is Nice, but Value Drives Loyalty,” Marketing Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 20-23.
Nia, A., &; Zaichkowsky, J. L. (2000). Do counterfeits devalue the ownership of luxury brands? Journal of Product &; Brand Management, 9(7), 485-497.
Nueno, J. L., and Quelch, J. A. (1998). The Mass Marketing of Luxury. Business Horizons. Greenwich: Nov/Dec, 41(6); 61-68.
Oliver, R. L., (1999), “Whence Consumer Loyalty?” Journal of Marketing, Vol.63, No.1, pp.33-44.
Onkvisit, S., &;; Shaw, J. (1987), “Self-concept and image congruence: some research and managerial implications.”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.4, No.1, pp.13-23.
Petrick, J. F., and Backman, S. J.(2002), “An Examination of Golf Travelers’ Satisfaction
Prus, A. &; Brandt, D. R., (1995), “Understanding Your Customers,” Marketing Tools, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 10-14
Punniyamoorthy, M., &; Raj, M. P. M. (2007). “An empirical model for brand loyalty measurement,” Journal of Targeting Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, Vol. 15, pp. 222-233.
Rao, A. R. &; K. B., Monroe (1989), “The Effect of Price, Brand Name, and Store Name on Buyers’ Perceptions of Product Quality: An Integrative Review,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 351-357.
Richins, M. L., &; Root-Shaffer, T. (1988). The role of involvement and opinion leadership in consumer word-of-mouth: An implicit model made explicit. Advances in Consumer Research, 15, 32-36.
Schiffman, L. &; L. L., Kanuk (1991), Consumer Behavior (2nd Ed.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Sheth, J., Newman, B., and Gross, B.(1991) Consumption Values and Market Choices, Theory and Applications, Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co..
Silverstein, M. J., Fiske N., &; Butman J. (2003), Trading up: the American Luxury, Portfolio Hardcover.
Snyder, C. R. and Fromkin, H. L. (1977), “Abnormality as a Positive Characteristic: The Development and Validation of a Scale Measuring Need for Uniqueness”, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol.86, No.5, pp.518-527.
Spangenberg, E. R., Voss, K. E., and Crowley, A. E. (1997), “Measuring the Hedonic and Utilitarian Dimensions of Attitude: A Generally Applicable Scale”, Advance in Consumer Research, Vol.24, No.1,pp.235-241.
Stum, D. L., &;; Thiry, A. (1991), “Building customer loyalty.”, Training and Development Journal, Vol.45, No.4, pp.34-36.
Udell, J. G. (1966), “Prepurchase Behavior of Buyers of Small Electrical Appliance” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 50-52.
Veblen, T. (1899), The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York: Macmillan.
Vigneron, F. &; L.W., Johnson (2004) “Measuring perceptions of brand luxury,” Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 484-506.
Zeithaml, V. A. &;Berry, L.L. (1988), “A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality”, Journal of Retailing, 64(1), pp.12-40.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top