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研究生:丁宏凌
研究生(外文):Hong-Linh Dinh
論文名稱:東亞生產網絡之價值鏈轉型研究
論文名稱(外文):The value chain transition in East Asian production networks– The view from value-added decomposition of gross exports
指導教授:林師模林師模引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Mo Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:商學博士學位學程
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:193
中文關鍵詞:整合重複計算國外附加價值國內附加價值東亞生產網絡價值鏈轉型
外文關鍵詞:foreign value-addedintegrationpure double countingEast Asian production networksvalue chain transitiondomestic value-added
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摘要
東亞各國間的生產網絡關係相當緊密,文獻中已早有許多探討,惟多數文獻仍採用傳統的貿易統計資料進行分析,致有將中間產品因跨越邊界多次而重複計算的問題,進而產生偏誤之區域價值鏈分析結果。本研究主要係探討東亞各國產業價值鏈轉型的過程,並從中掌握各國產業出口競爭力的變化情形,採用的分析資料為世界投入產出資料庫中的世界投入產出表及相關資料,而分析方法則主要是借鏡Wang et al. (2013) 的產品附加價值分解方法。本研究針對國家整體及個別產業部門進行分析,並特別選定電子設備相關產業進行重點分析,分析結果顯示,東亞國家中日本在產業上游的製造方面仍佔優勢,而台灣及韓國則是逐漸趕上,成為重要之中間產品供應國。此外,東亞各國近年產品逐漸轉向以供應亞洲國家為主,而亞洲國家再進一步將產品銷往世界各國,顯示東亞國家間的合作關係更為緊密。至於在比較台灣與韓國間的競合關係方面,本研究發現,兩國間的合作關係愈來愈緊密,但在中國大陸市場的競逐方面,韓國似乎已經超越台灣,台灣應該及早思考因應之道,以有效回應此一情勢的發展。
ABSTRACT

East Asia’s production networks have been well documented in the academic literature, however most of the previous studies were based on gross trade statistics. These statistics double count intermediates when they cross multiple national borders before being embodied in the final goods. This may lead to estimation bias, and give an inaccurate account of value-added distribution in East Asia’s production chains. Therefore, our understanding of the real trade in value-added among East Asian economies needs to be revisited. This study aims to more accurately describe the transition of international value chains for the first time by taking double-counted terms into account. Using time-series data from World Input-Output Database (WIOD) and applying Wang et al.’s (2013) methodology, the study decomposes the gross exports of six East Asian economies to 16 components of value-added over a 17-year period. The analyses are conducted at the country-aggregate and country-sector levels, focusing on the Electrical and Optical Equipment industry since it has the largest share in East Asia’s exports. Japan still dominates in the upstream of international production chains, but Taiwan and South Korea are catching up by becoming major suppliers of intermediate inputs to the region. Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, and Indonesia used to export most of their value-added to outside regions but have gradually shifted its destination to East Asia. East Asia has been increasingly using more value-added from these four economies before re-exporting those products to the world, an indicator of their growing integration. I also focus on the bilateral trade relationship between Taiwan and South Korea, specifically on their cooperation and competition. The results are presented at the bilateral-aggregate level and bilateral-sector level of Electrical and Optical Equipment industry. Both economies are increasing their dependence on each other in their export production. Taiwan used to have a clear advantage over South Korea in their competition for the Chinese domestic and export production until around 2002, in both the aggregate level and sector of Electrical and Optical Equipment. South Korea has since overtaken or neutralized Taiwan’s advantage, implying that Taiwan needs to perform better in its business with China to reclaim its leading position.
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
ABBREVIATION vi
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Objectives 7
1.3 Overview 10
Chapter 2 Literature Review 14
2.1 Vertical specialization as trade in value-added 14
2.2 Value chains in East Asian production networks 20
Chapter 3 Methodology and Data 25
3.1 Traditional input-output and decomposition of gross exports 25
3.2 Decomposition of gross exports accounting before KWW and WWZ 31
3.3 Decomposing gross exports based on the general case of G-country, N-sector 33
3.3.1 Decomposition framework 33
3.3.2 Value-added exports based on forward- and backward-linkage 41
3.3.3 New measure of Reveal Comparative Advantage 44
3.4 Data description 46
Chapter 4 Value Chain Transition in East Asia 49
4.1 Overview of East Asian economies’ gross exports 49
4.1.1 Country-aggregate level results 49
4.1.2 Country-sector level results 53
4.2 Value chain transition in East Asian production networks 55
4.2.1 Some denotations 56
4.2.2 Country-aggregate level results 57
4.2.3 Value chain transition in East Asia’s Electrical and Optical Equipment industry 81
4.3 Taiwan and South Korea's bilateral trade relationship:
cooperation and competition as measured by trade in value-added 107
4.3.1 Co-operation between Taiwan and South Korea 107
4.3.2 Taiwan and South Korea’s bilateral trade with China as a proxy
to assess the competition between the two economies 119
Chapter 5 Conclusions 131
5.1 Key conclusions 131
5.2 Limitations and recommendation for future research 136
References 139
Appendix A: Data 144
Appendix B: East Asia gross exports 147
Appendix C: Country-sectors’ DVA a
nd FVA embodied in exports 157
Appendix D: How East Asian economies integrate into regional production
networks 165
Appendix E: New revealed comparative advantage index for five largest exporting
sectors of total six East Asian economies 181
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Inter-country flows of goods 25
Table 2. Direct input coefficient 26
Table 3. Top country-sectors’ exports of East Asia 54
Table 4a. Value-added components in gross exports 58
Table 4b. The proportion of value-added contents in gross exports 59
Table 5. FVA, FVA_INT and FVA_INT sourced from East Asia 77
Table 6. Selected sector's DVA exports, as a share of country-aggregate
DVA exports 84
Table 7. Selected sectors' FVA, as a share of country-aggregate FVA in exports 85
Table 8. DVA exports, as a share of Electrical and Optical Equipment exports 88
Table 9. DVA to East Asia, as a share of Electrical and Optical Equipment’s
DVA exports 90
Table 10. RDV and DDC, as a share of Electrical and Optical Equipment exports 95
Table 11. FVA and FDC, as a share of Electrical and Optical Equipment exports 101
Table 12. Bilateral trade between Taiwan and South Korea 109
Table 13-Panel A. DVA absorbed in each trading partner at the aggregate level 110
Table 13-Panel B. DVA absorbed in each trading partner at the sector level 110
Table 14-Panel A. RDV and DDC at the aggregate level 116
Table 14-Panel B. RDV and DDC at the sector level 116
Table 15-Panel A. FVA and FDC sourced from the partner at the aggregate level 117
Table 15-Panel B. FVA and FDC sourced from the partner at the sector level 117
Table 16. Taiwan and South Korea’s exports to China 122
Table 17-Panel A. Taiwan’s DVA absorbed in China 127
Table 17-Panel B. South Korea’s DVA absorbed in China 127
Table 17-Panel C. The ratio of DVA absorbed in China between
Taiwan and South Korea 127
Table 18. FVA sourced from Taiwan and South Korea embodied
in China’s gross exports 128
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. The overview of the research methods and procedures 11
Figure 2. WWZ’s gross exports decomposition framework 40
Figure 3. Schematic outline of World Input-Output Table (WIOT), three regions 48
Figure 4. Gross exports in the period of 1995 – 2011 50
Figure 5. Exports to East Asian market, as a share of gross exports 51
Figure 6. Intermediate exports, as a share of gross exports 52
Figure 7. Intermediate exports to East Asia, as a share of total intermediate exports 53
Figure 8. DVA’s share in gross exports 62
Figure 9a. DVA_FIN, as a share of domestic value-added exports 62
Figure 9b. DVA_INT, as a share of domestic value-added exports 63
Figure 9c. DVA_INTreex, as a share of domestic value-added exports 63
Figure 10. DVA to East Asia, as a share of total DVA exports 64
Figure 11a. DVA_FIN to East Asia, as a share of total DVA exports to East Asia 64
Figure 11b. DVA_INT to East Asia, as a share of total DVA exports to East Asia 65
Figure 11c. DVA_INTreex from East Asia, as a share of total DVA exports
to East Asia 65
Figure 12. DVA_INTreex from East Asia, as a share of total DVA_INTreex 67
Figure 13. DVA_INT to East Asia, as a share of total DVA_INT exports 67
Figure 14. RDV, as a share of gross exports 69
Figure 15. RDV via intermediate imports, as a share of total RDV 69
Figure 16. DDC due to intermediate export production, as a share of gross exports 69
Figure 17. RDV based on exports to East Asia, as a share of total RDV 70
Figure 18. RDV via intermediates, as a share of RDV based on exports to East Asia 70
Figure 19. DDC re-exported to East Asia, as a share of total DDC 70
Figure 20. FVA, as a share of gross exports 72
Figure 21a. FVA_FIN, as a share of total FVA 73
Figure 21b. FVA_INT, as a share of total FVA 73
Figure 22. FDC, as a share of gross exports 73
Figure 23. FVA sourced from East Asia, as a share of total FVA 74
Figure 24. FVA sourced from East Asia, as a share of gross exports 75
Figure 25a. FVA sourced from East Asia embodied in final good exports,
as a share of FVA sourced from East Asia 77
Figure 25b. FVA sourced from East Asia embodied in intermediate exports,
as a share of FVA sourced from East Asia 78
Figure 26. FDC from East Asian sources, as a share of total FDC 80
Figure 27a. DVA_FIN, as a share of Electrical and Optical Equipment’s
DVA exports 89
Figure 27b. DVA_INT, as a share of Electrical and Optical Equipment’s
DVA exports 89
Figure 27c. DVA_INTreex, as a share of Electrical and Optical Equipment’s
DVA exports 89
Figure 28a. DVA_FIN to East Asia, as a share of DVA exports to East Asia 91
Figure 28b. DVA_INT to East Asia, as a share of DVA exports to East Asia 91
Figure 28c. DVA_INTreex from East Asia, as a share of DVA exports to East Asia 92
Figure 29. RDV via intermediate imports, as a share of total RDV
of the Electrical and Optical Equipment industry 96
Figure 30. DDC due to intermediate exports, as a share of total DDC
of the Electrical and Optical Equipment industry 96
Figure 31. RDV based on exports to East Asia, as a share of total RDV
of the Electrical and Optical Equipment industry 97
Figure 32. RDV via intermediate imports, as a share of RDV based on
exports to East Asia of the Electrical and Optical Equipment industry 97
Figure 33. DDC re-exported to East Asia, as a share of total DDC
of the Electrical and Optical Equipment industry 98
Figure 34. FVA_INT, as a share of FVA in Electrical and Optical
Equipment exports 102

Figure 35. FVA sourced from East Asia, as a share of total FVA
in Electrical and Optical Equipment exports 102
Figure 36. FVA sourced from East Asia embodied in intermediate exports,
as a share of FVA sourced from East Asia 102
Figure 37. FDC sourced from East Asia, as a share of total FDC
in Electrical and Optical Equipment exports 103
Figure 38a. Traditional RCA indices for Electrical and Optical Equipment exports 106
Figure 38b. New RCA indices for Electrical and Optical Equipment exports 106
Figure 39a. DVA absorbed in partner’s economy, as a share of
exports to the partner 113
Figure 39b. DVA absorbed in partner’s economy, as a share of total DVA
absorbed abroad 113

DDCPure double counting from domestic sources
DDC_FINPure double counting from domestic sources due to final good export production
DDC_INTPure double counting from domestic sources due to intermediate export production
DVADomestic value-added absorbed abroad
DVA_FINDomestic value-added in final good exports absorbed abroad
DVA_INTDomestic value-added in intermediate exports absorbed by direct importers
DVA_INTreexDomestic value-added in intermediate exports absorbed abroad, which are then re-exported to third countries

FDCPure double counting from foreign export production
FVAForeign value-added embodied in country’s gross exports
FVA_FINForeign value-added used in final good exports
FVA_INTForeign value-added used in intermediate exports
PDCPure double counting
RCAReveal comparative advantage
RDVDomestic value-added initially absorbed abroad then finally returns home
RDV_FINDomestic value-added returns home via final good imports
RDV_INTDomestic value-added returns home via intermediate imports
VAX_BBackward-linkage based value-added exports
VAX_FForward-linkage based value-added exports
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