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研究生:林家慰
研究生(外文):Chia-Wei Lin
論文名稱:動作方向與難度對上肢運動績效之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Movement Direction and Difficulty on Upper Limb Movement Performance
指導教授:李正隆李正隆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng-Lung Lee
口試委員:宋鵬程羅世忠
口試委員(外文):Peng-Cheng SungShu-Zon Lou
口試日期:2014-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:上肢點擊運動動作方向Fitts' law肌電訊號
外文關鍵詞:Upper limb pointingmovement directionFitt's lawelectromyography
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上肢點擊運動之績效包括動作方向、移動距離與目標寬度等因素,過去Fitts’ Law是探討移動距離與目標寬度組成之難度指數對於動作時間存在之線性關係,而對於動作方向及其上肢肌電活動之研究未見相關探討。
本實驗利用生理訊號量測系統及動作時間測定儀,收集12位年輕與12位老年受測者(男女均各半)執行連續點擊作業時,其慣用手上肢肌群肌電訊號(Electromyography, EMG)、反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率等資料。實驗因子包括5種動作方向(0、45、90、135及180度)、3種移動距離(15、30及45公分)及2種目標寬度(1及2公分)。結果顯示,動作方向對於實驗中三條特定肌群(上斜方肌、前三角肌、肱橈肌)呈現顯著影響,當動作方向的角度增加,其肌電訊號也隨之增加。移動距離與目標寬度對於動作時間呈現顯著影響,隨著移動距離增加或目標寬度縮小,動作時間也隨之增加。當從事本研究上肢點擊運動時,其動作方向應與慣用手同方向,且應縮短移動距離及放大目標寬度為原則。

Three main ergonomics factors to affect the upper limb pointing movement performance are movement direction, movement distance and target width. In the past, Fitts’ Law have been emphasized on the difficulty index consisting of movement distance and target width with the linear relationship of movement time. Few studies on the movement direction affecting pointing performance were discussed in the literature.
In this study, an experiment was conducted to collect electromyographic data, reaction time, movement time and pointing errors in the laboratory when a pointing task was performed using EMG and movement time measurement system. Twelve young and twelve elderly subjects (evenly divided between male and female) were recruited. Thirty experimental task patterns, consisting of five movement directions (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 degree), three movement distances (15, 30, and 45 cm), and two target widths (1 and 2 cm) were designed and performed in this study.The study results revealed that movement direction significantly affected upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and brachioradialis EMG behaviors. The %MVC (maximal voluntary contraction) of these muscles increased when the movement direction became larger. The movement distance and target width had significant influence on the movement time. The movement time became larger when the movement distance increased or target width decreased. The movement direction should be taken along with the same handedness direction when an upper limb pointing task is performed. Additionally, shorter movement distance and larger taget width showed be considered to increase pointing performance.

目錄
誌謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 研究架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 水平面作業 6
2.1.1水平面作業移動方向 6
2.1.2 水平面作業移動距離 6
2.2 上肢運動 7
2.3 肌電訊號之量測 9
2.3.1 肌電訊號 10
2.4 肌電訊號強度與分析 11
第三章 研究方法與步驟 13
3.1 受測者 13
3.2 實驗設備 15
3.2.1 生理訊號量測系統 15
3.2.2 動作時間測定儀 17
3.2.3 動作時間測定軟體 18
3.2.4 點擊筆 19
3.2.5 攝影機 20
3.2.6 主觀性評量 20
3.3 實驗因子 20
3.4 實驗程序 23
3.5資料處理與分析 25
第四章 實驗結果 27
4.1 受測者之人體計測值 27
4.2 不同點擊型態各因子之影響 27
4.2.1 反應時間 29
4.2.2 動作時間 29
4.2.3 點擊失誤率 30
4.2.4 肌電訊號 31
4.3年齡因子之影響 33
4.3.1 年齡因子對點擊作業之動作時間影響 33
4.3.3 年輕受測者各因子之影響 40
4.3.4 老年受測者各因子之影響 44
4.4 性別因子之影響 46
4.4.1 性別因子對點擊作業動作時間之影響 46
4.3.3 男性受測者各因子之影響 53
4.3.4 女性受測者各因子之影響 57
4.5 不同作業形態下之主觀性評估結果分析 61
第五章 討論 65
5.1 不同點擊型態各因子之影響 65
5.1.1 動作方向 65
5.1.2 移動距離 65
5.1.3 目標寬度 66
5.2 年齡差異對點擊動作之影響 66
5.2.1 點擊作業之反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率 66
5.2.2 點擊作業之上肢肌電訊號 66
5.3性別差異對點擊動作之影響 67
5.3.1 點擊作業之反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率 67
5.3.2 點擊作業之上肢肌電訊號 67
5.4 主觀性評量之影響 68
第六章 結論與建議 69
6.1 結論 69
6.2 建議 69
參考文獻 71
附錄一 受測者須知及實驗同意書 79
附錄二 主觀方向難易度問卷 80
附錄三 主觀距離難易度問卷 81
附錄四 Bonferroni成對比較表 82


表目錄
表3.1年輕人受測者之人體計測資料(n = 12) 14
表3.2老年人受測者之人體計測資料(n = 12) 15
表3.3 量測肌群位置 16
表3.4 不同移動距離與目標寬度之難度指數 21
表4.1 受測者之人體計測 27
表4.2 全體受測者反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率 28
表4.3 點擊作業自變項對反應時間之變異數分析(全體) 29
表4.4 點擊作業自變項對動作時間之變異數分析(全體) 30
表4.5 點擊作業自變項對點擊失誤率之變異數分析(全體) 31
表4.6 點擊作業自變項對上斜方肌之變異數分析(全體) 31
表4.7 點擊作業自變項對前三角肌之變異數分析(全體) 32
表4.8 點擊作業自變項對肱橈肌之變異數分析(全體) 33
表4.9 年輕人受測者反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率之平均數 34
表4.10 老年人受測者反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率之平均數 35
表4.11 點擊作業自變項對反應時間之變異數分析(年齡) 36
表4.12 點擊作業自變項對動作時間之變異數分析(年齡) 37
表4.13 點擊作業自變項對點擊失誤率之變異數分析(年齡) 38
表4.14 點擊作業自變項對上斜方肌之變異數分析(年齡) 38
表4.15 點擊作業自變項對前三角肌之變異數分析(年齡) 39
表4.16 點擊作業自變項對肱橈肌之變異數分析(年齡) 40
表4.17 動作方向對依變項之變異數分析(年輕) 42
表4.18 移動距離對依變項之變異數分析(年輕) 42
表4.19 目標寬度對依變項之變異數分析(年輕) 42
表4.20 動作方向對反應時間與肌電訊號之Duncan事後檢定(年輕) 43
表4.21 移動距離對動作時間與肌電訊號之Duncan事後檢定(年輕) 44
表4.22 動作方向對依變項之變異數分析(老年) 45
表4.23 移動距離對依變項之變異數分析(老年) 45
表4.24 目標寬度對依變項之變異數分析(老年) 46
表4.25 男性受測者反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率之平均數 47
表4.26 女性受測者反應時間、動作時間及點擊失誤率之平均數 48
表4.28 點擊作業自變項對動作時間之變異數分析(性別) 50
表4.29 點擊作業自變項對點擊失誤率之變異數分析(性別) 51
表4.30 點擊作業自變項對上斜方肌之變異數分析(性別) 51
表4.31 點擊作業自變項對前三角肌之變異數分析(性別) 52
表4.32點擊作業自變項對肱橈肌之變異數分析(性別) 53
表4.33 動作方向對依變項之變異數分析(男性) 55
表4.34 移動距離對依變項之變異數分析(男性) 55
表4.35 目標寬度對依變項之變異數分析(男性) 55
表4.36動作方向對反應時間與肌電訊號之Duncan事後檢定(男性) 56
表4.37 移動距離對動作時間與肌電訊號之Duncan事後檢定(男性) 56
表4.38 動作方向對依變項之變異數分析(女性) 58
表4.39 移動距離對依變項之變異數分析(女性) 59
表4.40 目標寬度對依變項之變異數分析(女性) 59
表4.41動作方向對肌電訊號之Duncan事後檢定(女性) 59
表4.42 移動距離對動作時間與肌電訊號之Duncan事後檢定(女性) 60
表4.43 受測者主觀動作方向評量之平均值與標準差 62
表4.44 受測者主觀移動距離評量之平均值與標準差 63


圖目錄
圖1.1 研究架構與流程 5
圖3.1 肌電訊號量測模組(Biopac System Inc., MP150) 17
圖3.2 量取肌電訊號之三條肌群 17
圖3.3 動作時間測定儀 18
圖3.4 動作時間測定軟體 19
圖3.5 點擊筆 19
圖3.6 重複點擊作業實驗設計示意圖 21
圖3.7 可調整桌高的升降機 23
圖3.8 受測者點擊示意動作 25
圖4.1 不同作業型態之整體主觀動作方向評量趨勢圖 64
圖4.2 不同作業型態之整體主觀移動距離評量趨勢圖 64


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