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研究生:林羿妙
研究生(外文):Lin, Yi-Miao
論文名稱:消費者對毒澱粉上游廠商危機知覺之貫時性研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Consumers’ Crisis Perceptions of Upstream Manufacturers of Tainted Starch
指導教授:姚惠忠姚惠忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yao, Huei-Jhong
口試委員:汪睿祥林淑慧
口試委員(外文):Wang, Rui-XiangLin, Shu-Huei
口試日期:2014-06-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:人力資源暨公共關係學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:危機溝通媒體報導公眾情緒組織聲譽行為意圖
外文關鍵詞:crisis communicationmedia reportpublic emotionorganizational reputationbehavioral intention
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本研究以毒澱粉上游廠商為研究對象,運用實驗法與固定連續樣本研究法,探討媒體對危機事件之報導,對公眾的知覺、情緒、態度與行為意圖之可能影響;觀察公眾因危機事件而生的知覺、情緒、態度與行為意圖,可能持續的時間長短;檢視因危機事件而生之公眾情緒(包括同情、生氣、擔憂、恐懼),對組織聲譽、購買意圖的可能影響;建構並驗證加入擔憂情緒後的危機溝通模型。
研究結果發現:(1)媒體報導會影響受眾之危機責任知覺與怒氣程度。(2)毒澱粉事件對消費者的危機責任知覺、生氣程度至少持續8個月左右時間。(3) 消費者同情與生氣情緒顯著影響上游廠商聲譽;消費者恐懼與擔憂情緒則會顯著影響消費者的再購意願。(4) 加入擔憂情緒之模型顯示,恐懼會影響擔憂情緒、擔憂會直接或透過危機責任間接影響公眾怒氣、危機責任則直接或透過公眾怒氣間接影響組織聲譽。
以上研究結果,給危機管理者的啟示包括:(1)減少媒體對危機事件之報導數量,應有助於公眾降低組織該承擔之危機責任與怒氣程度。減少報導數量應有縮短危機事件對組織之影響持續時
間。(2) 組織危機溝通之目標若為組織聲譽,則消費者同情與生氣是危機管理應關注之情緒。(3)組織危機溝通之目標若為消費者的再購意願,則恐懼與擔憂是組織應優先處理的情緒。

The current study investigates the influence of media reports on the public in relation to firms supplying products with poisoned starch/ amylum which is regarded as responsible for the crisis. Methodological approaches of experiment and panel study were used to examine whether crisis issues would influence the pubic on their perceptions, emotions, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional endurance time; and, whether the aroused public emotion (e.g. sympathy, anger, worry, fear, etc) would impact organizational reputation or consumers’ intention of purchase. Lastly, a crisis communication model with worry incorporated was proposed and verified.
Findings include (1) the influence of media reports on the public in relation to their perceptions of crisis responsibility and anger; (2) the public’s anger aroused by the issue of poisoned starch/amylum endures at least for eight months; (3) sympathy and
anger influence the reputation of suppliers significantly; fear and worry influence consumers’ re-purchase intentions; and (4) the worry-added model indicates fear influences worry, and worry directly or indirectly, through crisis responsibility, influences the public anger; additionally, crisis responsibility directly influences (or indirectly by way of anger) organizational reputation.
Based on the findings of the current study, managerial implications can be demonstrated as follows: (1) less media reports on the crisis would help decrease the crisis responsibility of an organization, the public’s anger, as well as the enduring time of impacts upon the organization; (2) while reputation is regarded as the priority to safeguard an organization, consumer emotion variables such as sympathy and anger that deserve more attentions from managers; and, contrarily, (3) as consumer re-purchase intention is treated as the priority goal of crisis communication, both fear and worry are the emotions obliged to be managed in the first place.

封面內頁
簽名頁
中文摘要…………………………………………………………...iii
英文摘要…………………………………………………………....v
誌謝……………………………………………………………......vii
目錄………………………………………………………………...ix
圖目錄……………………………………………………………...xi
表目錄……………………………………………………………..xii
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景……………………………………………1
第二節 研究動機……………………………………………2
第三節 研究目的……………………………………………5
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………6
第一節 危機溝通與媒體報導………………………………6
第二節 危機溝通與公眾情緒媒………………………...….8
第三節 動態觀點之危機溝通……………………………...11
第四節 SCCT修正模型之探討……….…………………...15
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………...21
第一節 實驗設計…………………………………………...22
第二節 研究問卷……….……….……….……….………...24
第三節 資料分析…………………………………………...28
第四章 資料分析與研究結果…………………………………...31
第一節 樣本之結構分析…………………………………...31
第二節 信效度分析………………………………………...32
第三節 差異檢定…………………………………………...36
第四節 迴歸分析…………………………………………...39
第五節 SEM分析………………………………………… 40
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………...44
第一節 結論與管理意涵…………………………………...44
第二節 研究限制與未來研究建議………………………...47
參考文獻…………………………………………………………...49
附錄……….……….……….……….……….……….…………….56
圖目錄
圖2-1 SCCT模型……………………………..…………………..16
圖2-2 Choi & Lin(2009b)之SCCT修正模型………………….17
圖2-3姚惠忠(2014)之SCCT再修正模型………………………18
圖2-4加入擔憂情緒之危機溝通模型……………………………19
圖2-5將生氣改為同情之危機溝通模型…………………………20
圖4-2模型一SEM分析-生氣……………………………………41
圖4-2模型一SEM分析-同情……………………………………42
表目錄
表3-1 問卷內容…………………………………………………...25
表4-1 四階段樣本回收概況……………………………………...31
表4-2 基本資料表……………………………….……...………...32
表4-3 KMO值與Bartlett檢定彙整表………………..………..33
表4-4 各變項因素負荷量與Cronbach's α值…………….…....35
表4-5 不同刺激材料之差異分析………………...……………...37
表4-6 不同時間點之差異分析…………………..……………….38
表4-7 情緒對聲譽之迴歸分析表………………...………………39
表4-8 情緒對再購意願之迴歸分析表…………………………...40
表4-9 SEM路徑係數-生氣………..…………………………....42
表4-10 SEM路徑係數-同情….…………………………………43


一、中文部分
王永康(2012)。情境式危機溝通理論之貫時性研究。大葉大學人力資源暨公共關係學系研究所碩士論文,未出版,彰化縣。
吳宗立(2005)。學校危機管理案例分析。教育研究與發展期刊,1(2),135-154。
吳宜蓁(1999)。腸病毒風暴的危機溝通與媒體效能-危機溝通模式的檢測與建構。中華傳播學會1999年年會發表之論文。嘉義,台灣。
吳育沛、簡華妏(2009)譯。Heppner, P. P. & Heppner, M. J. 原著。研究論文寫作:撰寫與投稿的武功袐笈。台北新加坡商聖智學習。
姚惠忠(2014)。恐懼與生氣情緒在危機溝通中的角色。中華傳播學刊,25,193-222。
食品藥物管理局(2013)。藥物食品安全週報。藥物食品安全週報,第401期,1-3。
曹中瑋(1997)。情緒的認識與掌控。學生輔導,51,26-39。
葉重新(2000)。心理學。台北市:心理出版社。
謝蕙春、錢靜怡(2006)。社區犯罪事件對民眾被害恐懼之影響與策略─以高市某實際案件為例。台灣心理學會第45屆年會。台北,台灣。


二、英文部分
An, S. K. & Gower K. K. (2009). How do the news media frame crises? A content analysis of crisis news coverage. Public Relations Review, 35(2), 107-112.
Benoit, W. L. (1997). Image Repair Discourse and Crisis Communication. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 177-186.
Benson, J. A. 1988. “Crisis revised: An Analysis of Strategies Used by Tylenol in the second Tampering Episode.”Central States Speech Journal 39:49-66.
Boomsma, A. (2000). Reporting analyses of covariance structures. Structural Equation Modeling, 7, 461-483.
Brave, S., & Nass, C. (2002). Emotion in human-computer interaction. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Choi, Y., & Lin, Y. H. (2009a). Consumer response to crisis: exploring the concept of involvement in Mattel product recalls. Public Relations Review, 35(1), 18-22.
Choi, Y., & Lin, Y. H. (2009b). Consumer responses to Mattel product recalls posted on online bulletin boards: Exploring two type of emotion, Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(2), 198-207.
Claeys, A. -S., Cauberghe, V., & Vyncke, P. (2010). Restoring reputations in times of crisis: An experimental study of the Situational Crisis Communication Theory and the moderating effects of locus of control. Public Relations Review, 36(3), 256-262.
Coombs, W. T. (2004). Impact of past crises on current crisis communication. Journal of Business Communication,41(3), 265-289.
Coombs, W. T. (2006). The protective powers of crisis response strategies: managing reputational assets during a crisis. Journal of Promotion Management, 12, 241-259.
Coombs, W. T. (2007). Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: the development & application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate Reputation Review, 10(3), 163-176.
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2001). An extended examination of the crisis situation: A fusion of the relational management and symbolic approaches. Journal of Public Relations Research, 13, 321-340.
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2002). Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets: initial tests of the situational crisis communication theory. Management Communication Quarterly, 16(2), 165-186.
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2007). The negative communication dynamic: exploring the impact of stakeholder affect on behavioral intention. Journal of Communication Management, 11(4), 300-312.
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2008). Comparing apology to equivalent crisis response strategies: clarifying apology’s role & value in crisis communication, Public Relations Review, 34(3), 252- 257.
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2009). Further explorations of post-crisis communication: effects of media & response strategies on perceptions & intentions, Public Relations Review, 35(1), 1- 6.
Cowden, Craig R. (2005). Worry and its Relationship to Shyness, North American Journal of Psychology, 7(1), 59-70.
Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212–228.
Hearit, K. M. (2006). Crisis management by apology: corporate response to allegations of wrongdoing. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Holbrook, M. B. (1994). The nature of customer value in Service Quality. New Directions in Theory and Practice (pp.21-71). London: Sage Publications.
Hoyle, R. H., & Panter, A.T. (1995). Writing about structural Equation models. In R. H. Hoyle (ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts issues, and applications (pp.158-176). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage,.
Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy, J. A., & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations. Psychological methods, 14(1), 6-23.
Joreskog, K. G. & Sörbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: User’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
Jin, Y. (2009). The effects of public’s cognitive appraisal of emotions in crises on crisis coping and strategy assessment. Public Relations Review, 35, 310-313.
Kim, J. R. & Kim, J. N. (2010). A theoretical perspective on “fear” as an organizational motivator for initiating public relations activities. Public Relations Review, 36, 184-186.
Kim, H. K., & Niederdeppe, J. (2013). The role of emotional response during an H1N1 influenza pandemic on a college campus. Journal of Public Relations Research, 25, 30-50.
Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14(3), 229-252.
Lee, S., & Chung, S. (2012). Corporate apology and crisis communication: The effect of responsibility admittance and sympathetic expression on public’s anger relief. Public Relations Review, 38, 932-934.
McDougall, W. (1928). Emotion and feeling distinguished. In M. L. Reymert (Ed.), Feelings and Emotions. Worcester: Clark University Press.
McDonald, L., & Hartel, C. E. J. (2000). Applying the involvement construct to organizational crises. In Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference (pp. 799–803). Gold Coast, Australia: Griffith University, Department of Marketing.
McDonald, L. M., Sparks, B., & Glendon, A. I. (2010). Stakeholder reaction to company crisis communication & causes. Public Relations Review, 36, 263-271.
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods. 7, 64-82.
Pang, A., Jin, Y., & Cameron, G. T. (2009, March). Final stage development of the Integrated Crisis Mapping (ICM) model in crisis communication: The myth of low engagement in crisis. Paper presented at the 12th International Public Relations Research Conference, Miami, FL.
Plutchik, R. (1994). The psychology and biology of emotions. New York: HarperCollins.
Schreiber, J. B. (2008). Core reporting practices in structural equation modeling. Administrative Pharmacy, 4, 83-97.
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三、網路部分
王暄茹(2013)。「毒澱粉」與洗腎無關!必學4招吃得安心。康健雜誌,來源:
http://www.commonhealth.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5049494

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