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研究生:劉健學
研究生(外文):Chien-Hsueh Liu
論文名稱:超廣角魚眼鏡頭優化設計
論文名稱(外文):Optimization Design of Ultra-wide Angle Fisheye Lenses
指導教授:田春林
指導教授(外文):Chuen-Lin Tien
口試委員:施錫富孫文信林貞宏
口試日期:2015-06-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:超廣角魚眼鏡頭優化設計公差分析最小阻尼二乘法基因演算法
外文關鍵詞:Ultra wide-angleFisheye lensOptimization designTolerance analysisDamped least-squaresGenetic algorithmModulation transfer function
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  • 下載下載:38
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本論文針對超廣角魚眼鏡頭進行優化設計,初步參考專利設計、設定初始規格目標,可望對光學系統進行縮減,於系統設計實例中逐步展示光學設計優化過程,為了改善像差而使用非球面透鏡,又因質不同材質分別展示兩組設計案例,最後將優化後的系統做公差分析。
本研究採用ZEMAX○R光學系統模擬軟體對超廣角魚眼鏡頭進行優化設計,以最小阻尼二乘法以及基因演算法,分別做為局部以及全域優化原理的基礎,初步參考相關專利作為擬定系統數值,以六片球面透鏡之設計作為初始架構,逐步遞減為五片球面透鏡,而後更換一片透鏡為非球面透鏡,並分別挑選非球面透鏡之材質OKP4HT以及PMMA做為兩個廣角魚眼鏡頭設計案例。
最後本文提出兩組由4片球面透鏡和1片非球面透鏡組合之超廣角魚眼鏡頭,其半視場角提升至87度,系統總長縮至15 mm以內,像差部分之光斑大小約在4 μm,場曲在± 0.05mm以內,F-θ畸變約在± 3.5 %,橫向色差小於± 2.0 μm。於公差分析的結果中,MTF空間頻率為120 cycles /mm 大於0.3以上。
This thesis presents the optimization design of ultra wide-angle fisheye lenses. According to several U.S. patents, we set the specifications and built an optical system for the fisheye lenses. During the design process, we showed the optimization of the system, eliminated the aberration and replaced the sphere lenses with aspheric lenses, and finally performed the tolerance analysis of the optical system.
In this study, we used Zemax optical design software to simulate and optimize optical systems based on the damped least-squares (DLS) and genetic algorithms (GA). First, we used the design parameters from U.S. patents as initial values to design a fisheye system with a six lens elements. Second, we made the choice of specifications, performance weighting and the software command during the optimization process. Third, we gradually decreased the system’s component to five lens elements and chose an aspheric lens of OKP4HT and PMMA to replace the second spherical lens for the original paten design. After optimizing these two fisheye lens design cases, we discussed the tolerance analysis according to the fabrication probability versus modulation transfer function (MTF).
We propose two fisheye lens design cases with four spherical lenses and one aspheric lens. The design results of these cases have a half-viewing angle of 87°, total length of less than 15 mm, spot size of less than 4 μm, lateral color within ± 2.0 μm, field curvature within ± 0.05mm and F-θ distortion ±3.5%. During the tolerance analysis, MTF is larger than 0.3 for the spatial frequency of 120 cycles/mm.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iii
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 1
1.3文獻探討 2
1.3.1魚眼鏡頭 2
1.3.2優化演算法 6
1.3.3公差靈敏度 8
第二章 設計原理 11
2.1符號定義 11
2.2像差理論 12
2.3 MTF調製傳遞函數 13
2.4 Zemax系統設計軟體 13
第三章 優化設計方法 15
3.1設計流程 15
3.2評價函數 16
3.3優化方法 17
3.3.1最小阻尼二乘法(DLS) 18
3.3.2基因演算法(GA) 22
第四章 系統設計實例 25
4.1 初步優化設計 26
4.2 二次優化設計—F-θ畸變 36
4.3 簡化系統優化設計—非球面透鏡 47
第五章 公差分析 60
5.1公差介紹 60
5.1.1中心公差(Centered Tolerance) 60
5.1.2偏心公差(Decentered Tolerance) 62
5.2 公差結果分析 63
第六章 結論 66
6.1研究成果 66
6.2未來展望 67
參考文獻 68
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[4]C. Beck, “Apparatus to photograph the whole sky,” J. Sci. Instrum. , vol. 2, pp. 135-139 (1925).
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[7]Ehtashami, Mohammad, S. J. Oh, and E. L. Hall, "Omni-directional position location for mobile robots," Proc. SPIE, vol. 521, pp. 62-73 (1984).
[8]A. Ning, " Compact fisheye objective lens," U.S. Patent NO. 20090080093.
[9]KII. Gyeong and M. Laikin, "Wide-angle lenses," U.S. Patent NO. 7612946.
[10]W. Li and Y. F. Li, "Single-camera panoramic stereo imaging system with a fisheye lens and a convex mirror," Optics Express, vol. 19, pp. 5855-5867 (2011).
[11]V. N. Mahajan, "Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Ray Geometrical Optics," SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash, USA (1998).
[12]D. P. Feder, “Automatic optical design,” Applied Optics, vol. 2, pp. 1209–1226 (1963).
[13]L. Kenneth, “A Method for the Solution of Certain Non-Linear Problems in Least Squares,” Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2, pp. 164-168 (1944).
[14]S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, vol. 220, pp. 671-680, (1983).
[15]J. H. Holland, "Genetic algorithms," Scientific American, vol. 267, No. 1, pp. 66 -72 (1992).
[16]Zemax Optical Design Program User’s Guide: version 10.0, Focus Software, Inc. (2001).
[17]D. S. Grey, "Tolerance sensitivity and optimization," Applied Optics, vol. 9, pp. 523-526 (1970).
[18]M. Isshiki, D. C. Sinclair, S. Kaneko, "Lens design: global optimization of both performance and tolerance sensitivity," Proc. SPIE, vol. 6342, p. 63420N (2006).
[19]M. Isshiki, et al, "Lens design: global optimization with escape function," Optical Review, vol.2, pp. 463-470 (1995).
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