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研究生:王聖博
研究生(外文):Sheng-Bo Wang
論文名稱:無線感測網路的移動錨節點定位問題之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Mobile Anchor-Based Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:陳啟彰陳啟彰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Chang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:移動錨節點高斯帕曲線節點定位法無線感測網路路徑規劃
外文關鍵詞:Mobile AnchorGosper CurveLocalization ProblemsWireless Sensor NetworksPath Planning Algorithm
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在本論文中,我們提出一個可以擴展的路徑規劃演算法來作為錨節點(Mobile Anchor)的移動軌跡,採用空間填充曲線─高斯帕曲線(Gosper Curve),讓自走車或機器人載著裝配GPS的錨節點沿著預設軌跡移動,並且在其六邊形網格中心點廣播位置訊息,我們的方法可以保證均勻遍歷整個感測區域。另外我們提出一種高斯帕島 (Gosper Islands)的座標系統,錨節點可以確定下一個廣播座標,實現抗障礙物的機制。如果使用相同錨節點感測半徑,高斯帕曲線作為錨節點移動路徑的方法比其他方法使用更少的廣播次數與移動路徑長度,更節省能源消耗。對於無線感測網路的錨節點定位問題,我們使用三點定位法搭配最小平方法來提升定位精準度,六邊形網格的排列方法可以有效的避免錨節點共線性問題。本論文的實驗以實際測量接收訊號強度值(RSSI)估測距離,並且以平均距離加上一到三倍的測量標準差進行模擬,當使用最大的RSSI值標準差時,定位誤差約為傳輸距離的百分之四點五,明顯較其他方法為佳。


In this thesis, we propose a scalable path planning algorithm as the trajectory for the mobile anchor in a wireless sensor network. We use Gosper curve, a space filling curve, as a trajectory for the robocar, equipped with GPS, to broadcast location information while travelling to the center of each hexagon along the path. Our approach can ensure that the mobile anchor traverses the entire sensing area uniformly. Meanwhile, we introduce a coordinate system of Gosper Islands for deciding the broadcast position of the mobile anchor, especially when the path has obstacles. If we use the same size of circumscribed circle of radius r for each grid (triangle, square, or hexagon), the anchor node moving path with Gosper curve use less broadcast time, length of moving path, and energy consumption than other methods.
For anchor node localization problem in wireless sensor networks, we use trilateration with the least squares method to estimate the positions of unknown nodes. The method of the hexagonal grid arrangement can effectively avoid the anchor node co-linearity. In this thesis, we use the actual measured value of RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) to estimate the distance between anchor node and each unknown node, and the simulations are with one to three times standard deviation of distance errors. Even when we use the maximum value of the standard deviation of RSSI for the distance errors, the location error is only about 4.5% of the transmission distance. It is better than most of the contemporary localization methods.


摘 要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
第一章 序論 1
第一節 無線感測網路簡介 1
第二節 研究動機與背景 2
一、 節點佈置問題 2
二、 移動錨節點定位機制 3
三、 移動錨節點的路徑規劃 5
第二節 章節概要 10
第二章 相關研究 11
第一節 定位相關理論 12
一、 三點定位法 12
二、 最小平方法多邊定位 12
第二節 基於移動錨節點定位的方法 16
一、 隨機移動方式 16
二、 掃描方式 17
三、 兩個錨節點定位方法 19
四、 三角形網格掃描 20
五、 希爾伯特路徑移動方式 21
第三章 高斯帕曲線與定位機制 23
第一節 高斯帕曲線特性 23
第二節 高斯帕島嶼座標系統 28
第三節 移動錨節點路徑規劃與定位方法 31
一、 錨節點覆蓋問題 32
二、 距離估計方法 33
三、 定位演算法 34
第四章 模擬與分析 36
一、 Gosper Curve定位比較 36
二、 隨機路徑定位比較 39
三、 綜合比較 41
第五章 結論 44
參考文獻 45


[1] 張圻毓, 陳啟彰, “無線感測節點無縫幾何排列”, 2010資訊技術應用管理研討會, 2010.
[2] J. Yoon , M. Liu, and B. Noble, “Random waypoint considered harmful,’’ Twenty-Second Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications ,Vol. 2, pp.1312–1321, 2013.

[3] D. Koutsonikolas, S. M. Das, and Y. C. Hu, “Path planning of mobile landmarks for localization in wireless sensor networks,’’ Computer Communications, Vol. 30, No. 8, pp. 2577–2592, 2007.

[4] Y. C. Lin and J. S. Liu, “The Path Planning Algorithm of Triangle Grid Scan for Localization in Wireless Sensor Network,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 278, No. 8, pp.1874–1877, 2013.

[5] J. M. Bahi, A. Makhoul, and A. Mostefaoui, “A Mobile Beacon Based Approach for Sensor Network Localization,” Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, 2007. WiMOB 2007. Third IEEE International Conference on, 2007.

[6] J. M. Bahi, A. Makhoul, and A. Mostefaoui, “Hilbert mobile beacon for localisation and coverage in sensor networks,’’ International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 39, No. 11, pp. 1081–1094, 2008.

[7] H. Fukuda, M. Shinizu, and G. Nakamura, “New Gosper Space Filling Curves, ’’ Computer Graphics and Imaging, pp.34–38, 2001.

[8] J. Akiyama, H. Fukuda, H. Ito, and G. Nakamura, “Infinite Series of Generalized Gosper Space Filling Curves,’’ Discrete Geometry, Combinatorics and Graph Theory, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4381 ,pp.1–9, 2007.

[9] C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, and Y. N. Li, “Range-Free Localization Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Bilateration,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Vol. 2013, NO. 620248, 2013.

[10] C. C. Chen and T. C. Lin, “A Low-Cost Anchor Placement Strategy for Range-Free Localization Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Vol. 2013, NO. 782451, 2013.

[11] K. F. Ssu, C. H. Ou, and H. C. Jiau, “Localization with mobile anchor points in wireless sensor networks,” Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 1187–1197, 2005.

[12] C. H. Ou and W. L. He, “Path Planning Algorithm for Mobile Anchor-Based Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 466–478, 2013.

[13]Z. B. Shi, Y. Zhu, Y. N. Ni, J. Shi, and Shu Yan, “A Localization Scheme with Dual Mobile Beacons in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Information Technology Journal, Vol. 12, No . 12, pp.2426–2432, 2013.

[14] J. Ventrella, Brain-filling Curves - A Fractal Bestiary, accessed on 2015/1/1 from webpage http://www.fractalcurves.com/Root7.html

[15] M. Bader, Space-Filling Curves:An Introduction with Applications in Scientific Computing, Vol. 9, Springer, 2012.

[16] C. C. Chen, Y. K. Chang, J. Y. Hung, and J. H. Liang, “Scalable Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Gosper Islands,” The Proceedings of International Computer Symposium., pp.145–154, 2014.


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