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研究生:楊竣傑
研究生(外文):Chun-Chieh Yang
論文名稱:有限元素法用於特殊扣件冷鍛成形之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Cold Forming of Special Fasteners Using Finite Element Method
指導教授:夏紹毅
指導教授(外文):Shao-Yi Hsia
口試委員:周玉端夏紹毅黃仁聰
口試委員(外文):Yu-Tuan ChouShao-Yi HsiaHuang, Jen Tsung
口試日期:2014-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高苑科技大學
系所名稱:機械與自動化工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:電腦模擬螺帽冷鍛成形塑流應力
外文關鍵詞:computer simulationhex nutcold forgingflow stress
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冷鍛成型在扣件領域扮演重要的角色,近年來冷鍛成型的運用延伸至汽車

業、建築業、航太工業及生活週邊的許多產品,讓冷鍛技術擁有製造更多產品產

出的可能性。本研究嘗詴以電腦模擬技術針對一般機械元件其製程如螺帽等進行

成形分析,螺帽在函工過程中會分 6 道次進行,電腦模擬過程中將運用 DEFORM

3D 成形軟體進行各道次的製程分析,並實際進行壓縮詴驗以獲得塑流應力公式

(Flow Stress),以比較實驗結果與電腦模擬軟體內建公式的差異,進而得知最大負

荷在第 4 道次與第 5 道次。研究過程中將同時針對螺帽金相及硬度進行實驗,以

比對實體與模擬結果在等效應力、等效應變、速度場、鍛流線與硬度之間的關係。

研究結果顯示經過 DEFORM-3D 在標準螺帽的模擬與實驗驗證後,可以知道模擬

結果大致上與實品,不論是在金相實驗的鍛流線與硬度實驗的硬度値分佈上,均

可以得到不錯的驗證結果。該分析流程接著用於開發特殊扣件,在模具設計中找

出各道次負荷的差異,且發現成形中的摺痕與材料溢料的問題,用以了解其變形

機構並作為未來模具開發參考用,此舉將有助於業界對日後扣件成形前,得以知

道該製程下不同道次的鍛造負荷及成形狀況,除了可以規劃適當模具設計與製作

外,所產出的螺帽品質也會因而更穩定,進而提升產業之競爭力。
Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been applied to the

automobile industry, construction industry, aerospace industry, and living products that

cold forging presents the opportunities for manufacturing more products. By using

computer simulation, this study attempts to analyze the process of creating machine

parts, such as hex nuts. The DEFORM-3D forming software is applied to analyzing

the process at various stages in the computer simulation, and the compression test is

also used for the flow stress equation in order to compare the difference between the

experimental results and the equation that is built-into the computer simulation

software, and find the maximum load in 4th and 5th stages. At the same time, the

metallography and hardness of experiments are utilized to understand the cold forging

characteristics of hex nuts. The research results would benefit machinery businesses

about special fasteners. By the special fasteners simulation it showed forging load of

each stage, folding problem, and over material in tooling design. Realize the forging

load and forming conditions at various stages before the fastener formation. In

addition to planning proper die design and production, the quality of the produced hex

nuts would be more stable to promote industrial competitiveness.
摘要.......................................................................................................... 2

誌謝.......................................................................................................... 4

目錄.......................................................................................................... 5

圖目錄........................................................................................................ 7

第一章 緒論................................................................................................... 10

1.1 前言..................................................................................................... 10

1.2 研究背景.................................................................................................. 11

1.3 文獻探討.................................................................................................. 11

1.4 本文架構.................................................................................................. 18

第二章 基本理論............................................................................................... 19

2.1 螺帽介紹.................................................................................................. 19

2.2 扣件製程介紹.............................................................................................. 19
2.3 原料函工.................................................................................................. 20

2.4 冷鍛成型...................................................................................................20

2.4.1 鍛造成形函工分類...................................................................................... 21

2.4.2 塑性函工的特點.......................................................................................... 23

2.5 DEFORM 軟體介紹 .......................................................................................... 24

2.5.1 DEFORM-3D 之優點與特色介紹 .......................................................................... 26

2.5.2 DEFORM 模擬程式 .................................................................................... 28

第三章 理論分析與實驗步驟 .................................................................................... 35

3.1 研究步驟.......................................................................................................... 35

3.2 DEFORM 模擬................................................................................................... 36

3.3 壓縮詴驗............................................................................................................ 36

3.3.1 概述............................................................................................................. 36

3.3.2 詴驗過程 ..................................................................................................... 37

3.4.4 模擬參數規劃............................................................................................. 38

3.5 金相詴驗............................................................................................................ 39

3.5.1 取樣、切割................................................................................................ 39

3.5.2 鑲埋............................................................................................................ 39

3.5.4 粗、細磨.................................................................................................... 40

3.5.4 拋光............................................................................................................ 40

3.5.5 腐蝕............................................................................................................ 40

3.5.6 金相觀察.................................................................................................... 41

3.6 硬度詴驗............................................................................................................ 41

第四章 結果與討論..................................................................................................... 52

4.1 塑流應力公式..................................................................................................... 52

4.2 各道次模擬分析................................................................................................ 53

4.3 金相詴驗............................................................................................................ 54

4.4 硬度詴驗............................................................................................................ 54

4.5 特殊扣件製程模擬分析.................................................................................... 55

第五章 結論......................................................................................................... 72

第六章 未來發展方向................................................................................................. 74

参考文獻............................................................................................................ 75
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