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研究生:李昭瑢
研究生(外文):Chao-Rong Lee
論文名稱:鷹架教學在英語閱讀理解的成效:一個在台灣小學以英語為外語的個案研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Scaffolding on English Reading Comprehension: A Case in EFL Elementary Students in Taiwan
指導教授:陳亦蘭陳亦蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yih-Lan, Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:應用英語學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:口語鷹架非口語鷹架閱讀理解
外文關鍵詞:reading comprehensionnon-verbal scaffoldingverbal scaffolding
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自2001年起,英文已成為國小五六年級學生的必修課程。然而,學生英語程度琛差不齊的情形與日俱增,使得老師們無法協助學生學習得更有效率。基於 Vygotsky的社會認知理論,鷹架學習可以更促使學生的學習更有效,也就是提供適時提供學生幫助。這個研究旨在探討台灣國小老師使用口語及非口語鷹架教學法在英語閱讀理解力的成效。在這實驗裡採用三種鷹架模式: 口語,非口語及混合口語及非口語。共有46位學生參予實驗,他們分別在不同組別。14位在非口語鷹架教學組,9位在口語鷹架教學組,23位在混合口語及非口語鷹架教學組總共上了四次課。閱讀測驗在第一次閱讀過後及鷹架教學後各一次。結果顯示混合鷹架教學法在加強學生的閱讀理解力上是最有成效的教學法。這結果顯示口語描述並輔助教具對學生是有助益的,尤其是英語程度較弱的學生。還有更多的結果證明多用口語描述比多用輔助教具更有顯著效果。
English has been a required subject for fifth and sixth graders in elementary schools in Taiwan since 2001. However, due to increasing gap of the students’ proficiency, it is becoming difficult for elementary school English teachers to assist students to learn effectively. Based on Vygotsky’s social cognitive theory, scaffolding can improve the effectiveness of learning when provided properly at the right moment. As a result, the current study aims to investigate the effects of teachers’ verbal and non-verbal scaffolding on English reading comprehension of elementary students in Taiwan. Three types of teacher’s scaffolding strategies were used: verbal scaffolding, non verbal scaffolding, and combination of verbal and non verbal scaffolding. A total of 46 sixth graders joined the study by attending three types of scaffolding sessions, 14 in non verbal scaffolding, 9 in verbal scaffolding, and 23 in combination of verbal and non verbal scaffolding in each session for 4 times. Reading Comprehension tests were implemented once before instruction began and once after the end of the last instruction. The results indicated that the combination of verbal and non verbal scaffolding is the most effective strategy in enhancing the learners’ reading comprehension especially to low proficiency students. The results also suggest that teachers’ verbal instructions are more important than non verbal instructions in improving students’ reading comprehension.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
中文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
Abstract (English)---------------------------------------------------------------------------II
Acknowledgement--------------------------------------------------------------------------III
TABLE OF CONTENT--------------------------------------------------------------------V
LIST OF TABLES-------------------------------------------------------------------------VII
LIST OF FIGURES------------------------------------------------------------------------VIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Motivation--------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 Purpose of the Study ----------------------------------------------------------------6
1.3 Research Questions ----------------------------------------------------------------- 7
1.4 Significance of the Study -----------------------------------------------------------8
1.5 Definition of the Terms -------------------------------------------------------------9
1.6 Structure of this Thesis--------------------------------------------------------------9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------- ------11
2.2 Zone of Proximal Development --------------------------------------------------11
2.3 Scaffolding Instruction ------------------------------------------------------------14
2.3.1 Verbal Scaffolding -------------------------------------------------------19
2.3.2 Non Verbal Scaffolding -------------------------------------------------22
2.4 Reading Comprehension----------------------------------------------------------- 25
2.5 Summary -----------------------------------------------------------------------------28
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1 Participants----------------------------------------------------------------------------31
3.2 Instruments ---------------------------------------------------------------------------32
3.3 Materials------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33
3.4 Procedures ----------------------------------------------------------------------------36
3.5 Data Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------------------41
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 MANCOVA for the General Effect of Scaffolding Instructions on Students’
Reading Comprehension-----------------------------------------------43
4.2 Analysis of Three Types of Scaffolding Instructions -----------------------------45
4.3The Analysis Repeated Measure for the Effect of Time And the Interaction
Between Time And Scaffolding Instruction--------52
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of the Findings-------------------------------------------------------------55
5.2 Implications of the Study ---------------------------------------------------------58
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Studies -------------------------------61
REFERENCES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------64
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 PowerPoint for Group Verbal-----------------------------------------------75
APPENDIX 2 PowerPoint for Group Non Verbal and Group Combination Non
Verbal and Verbal ------------------------------------------------------------76
APPENDIX 3-1 Reading Comprehension Tests (The Dangerous Driver)-1 ----------77
APPENDIX 3-2 Reading Comprehension Tests (The Dangerous Driver)-2 ----------78
APPENDIX 4-1 Reading Comprehension Tests (The Elephant Driver)-1 -------------79
APPENDIX 4-2 Reading Comprehension Tests (The Elephant Driver)-2 -------------80
APPENDIX 5 Score Conversion ------------------------------------------------------------81
APPENDIX 6給竹北國小校長教務主任及導師們的信------------------------------- 82
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