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研究生:初雅士
研究生(外文):Çubuk, Osman
論文名稱:以教育與對話建構社會和諧,論哈薩克的Hizmet 運動
論文名稱(外文):Building Social Harmony Through Education And Dialogue: The Hizmet Movement In Kazakhstan
指導教授:林長寬林長寬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Chang Kuan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國家發展研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:Hizmet運動世界和平穆斯林教育文化對話伊斯蘭
外文關鍵詞:Hizmet Movementpeace-buildingMuslim educationinter-cultural dialogueIslam
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本論文從跨國穆斯林教育改革運動與宗教文化對話之角度,研究社會衝突及其可能的解決之道。無論是西方社會,抑或東方社會,都存在著社會衝突及社會缺乏凝聚力等現象,此等現象現在成為公共辯論的核心議題。近年來,這些議題也被認為與穆斯林及其宗教活動相關。面對這類指控與社會問題,伊斯蘭世界以各種不同的方式做出回應。深受土耳其穆斯林思想家法圖拉‧菊稜(M. Fethullah Gülen)之思想及教誨而啟發,發展出的Hizmet全球公民社會運動,即提出了解決前述問題的實務做法,此係本論文內容所研究之主題。
在多元化的社會中,有各種不同的溝通架構與方法可解決衝突。Hizmet運動提倡在不同種族與信仰的環境之間建立新的教育體系與對話管道,並藉此邁向全球和平。Hizmet運動認為,唯有透過教育與對話,不同的社會群體間才有可能發展及維繫其社會的凝聚力,並能由此修補曾引發穆斯林與非穆斯林分裂的社會分歧。
本論文探討了在哈薩克的Hizmet運動,呈現出在哈薩克國家發展的進程中,一小群Hizmet運動的追隨者是如何成功地為國家的發展帶來和諧。並特別研究在後殖民時代的哈薩克,Hizmet運動所設立之學校對教育改革與社會轉型方面所造成的影響。研究顯示,Hizmet運動不僅參與了哈薩克的國家教育計畫,也間接促進了土耳其人與哈薩克人之間的相互了解。土耳其人與當地的哈薩克人,為建立和平共存與文明交集這些目標而共同努力,而在攜手合作的過程中,他們也能更加認識彼此。
本論文有助於對伊斯蘭在中亞突厥語係國家發展之研究,尤其針對自前蘇聯獨立出來之突厥語係國家的改革議題有所助益。除此之外,本論文探討了與教育改革及宗教文化對話之關係,在研究如Hizmet運動般之跨國伊斯蘭運動的同時,也為跨國伊斯蘭運動之研究拓展了新的研究面向。

The thesis researches on social conflicts and suggests the possible solutions from the perspective of Muslim transnational movement through educational reform and religio-cultural dialogue. The existence of social conflicts and the lack of social cohesion are the core themes of many public debates in both Western and Eastern societies. In recent years these issues have often been linked to Muslim communities and their religious activities. The Islamic response to these allegations and social problems is in various ways. Nevertheless this study concerns the solutions proposed and practiced by the Hizmet Movement, a global civil society inspired by the teachings of Fethullah Gülen, a great contemporary Turkish Muslim thinker.
In the pluralistic societies there are different communicational structures and ways of resolution to conflicts. The Hizmet Movement proposes that new education system and dialogues between different races and faiths can establish the bridge to attain global peace, and it suggests only through education and dialogue different societies or communities will maintain social cohesion and mend the social cleavages that divide Muslims and non-Muslims.
This thesis examines the Hizmet Movement in Kazakhstan. It reflects how a small group of Hizmet followers successfully bring harmony into the national development in Kazakhstan. It especially investigates the role and impact of Hizmet schools in educational reform and social transmutation of Kazakhstan in the post-colonial period. It also endeavors to show that Hizmet Movement is not only engaged in Kazakhstan national education projects, but also indirectly fosters mutual understanding between the Turkish people and the local Kazakhs in order to work together towards a peaceful coexistence and alliance of civilization.
The thesis will contribute to the study of Islam in Central Asia’s Turkic countries, especially the reformation after their independence from the former Soviet-Union. Besides, it brings out a new research dimension of Transnational Islamic movement such as the Hizmet, in the aspect of educational reform and religio-cultural dialogues.

Acknowledgments II
Abstract IV
Abstract in Chinese V
Table of ContentsVI
List of Tables and Figures VIII

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Research Aims and Background 1
1.2 Theoretical Framework 5
1.3 Methodology 10
1.4 Literature Review 14
1.5 Structure of the Thesis .22

Chapter 2: The Emergence of the Hizmet Movement 27
2.1 Introduction 27
2.2 The Ottoman Legacy 27
2.3 Emergence of the Hizmet Movement 36
2.4 Development of the Hizmet Movement .42
2.5 Islamic Foundations of the Hizmet Movement 47
2.6 Conclusion 51

Chapter 3: Fethullah Gülen Thought on Education 53
3.1 Introduction 53
3.2 Traditional Islamic Education 53
3.3 Traditional Ethics and Values imbedded in Education 61
3.4 Education for the Global Peace 69
3.5 Conclusion 75

Chapter 4: The Hizmet Movement in Kazakhstan 78

4.1 Introduction 78
4.2 Islam in Kazakhstan 78
4.3 Profane and Religious Education in Kazakhstan 83
4.4 Schooling Kazakhs .90
4.5 Conclusion 103

Chapter 5: Impacts of the Hizmet Schools on Kazakhstan’s Social Changes and Its Relations with Turkey 106

5.1 Introduction 106
5.2 Impact of the Hizmet Schools on the Educational Reform 106
5.3 Impact of the Hizmet Entrepreneurs on Turkey-Kazakhstan Relations 116
5.4 Building a Bridge through the Dialogue of Education 129
5.5 Conclusion 134

Chapter 6: Conclusion 136
References 142
Glossary of Terms 157
Abbreviations 160
Interview Questions 161
List of Interview 162


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Özdalga, Elisabeth. 2000. “Worldly Asceticism in Islamic Casting: Fethullah Gülen’s Inspired Piety and Activism”, Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, 17 (fall):83-104.
― ―, 2003. “Secularizing Trends in Fethullah Gülen’s Movement: Impasse or Opportunity for Further Renewal”? Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, 12 (1) pp.61-73.
― ―, 2005. “Redeemer or Outsider? The Gülen Community in the Civilizing Process”. The Muslim World. Volume 95 (July) pp. 429-446.
Özbudun, Ergun. 2007. “Democratizing Reforms in Turkey” Turkish Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 179–196.
Saritoprak, Zeki. 2005. “An Islamic Approach to Peace and Nonviolence: A Turkish Experience”. The Muslim World. Volume 95 (July) 413-427.
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Conference Papers

Afsaruddin, Asma. 2005. “The Philosophy of Islamic Education: Classical Views and M. Fethullah Gülen’s Perspectives”, Presented in conference Islam in the contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice. Houston: Rice University, November 12-13, 2005.
Agai, Bekim. 2005. “Discursive and Organizational Strategies of the Gülen Movement”, Presented in conference Islam in the contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice.” Houston: Rice University, November 12-13, 2005.
Aymaz, Abdullah. 2009. “The Gülen Movement: Past and Present.” Presented in the conference from Dialogue to Collaboration: The Vision of Gülen and Muslim-Christion Relations. Melborne: Australian Catholic University, July 15-16, 2009.
Barlas, Asma. 2006. “Reviving Islamic Universalism: East/s, West/s, and Coexistence”, Presented in the conference on Contemporary Islamic Synthesis. Alexandra, Egypt: Australian Catholic University, October 4–5, 2003.
Cetin, Muhammed. 2006. “Voluntary Altruistic Action: It's Symbolic Challenge Against Sinecures of Vested Interests”. Presented in conference Islam in the contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice. Houston: Rice University, November 12-13, 2005.
― ―, 2007. “Mobilization and counter mobilization: The Gülen Movement in Turkey”. Presented in conference Islam in the contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice. Houston: Rice University, November 12-13, 2005.
Greg, Barton. 2007. “Preaching by Example: Understanding the Gülen Hizmet in the Global Context of Religious Philanthropy and Civil Religion”, Presented in the conference on Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement. London: SOAS University, House of Lords and London School of Economics, October 25–27, 2007.
Ebaugh, Helen R. &; Koc, Dogan. 2007. “Funding Gülen inspired good works: Demonstrating and generating commitment to the movement”, Presented in the conference on Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement. London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press, 539- 551.
Kayaoğlu, Turan. 2007. “Preachers of Dialogue: International relations and Interfaith Theology”. Presented in the conference on Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement. Edited by Dr. Ihsan Yilmaz &; Co., 511-525. Published in Great Britain: Leeds Metropolitan University Press.
Kalyoncu, Mehmet. 2007. “Building Civil Society in Ethno-Religiously Fractured Communities: The Case of the Gülen Movement in Turkey and Abroad”. Presented in the conference on Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement. Edited by Dr. Ihsan Yilmaz, Muslim London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press. 597-607.
― ―, 2008. “Gülen-inspired Schools in the East Africa] Secular Alternative in Kenya and Pragmatist Approach to Development in Uganda”. Presented in the conference on Islam in the Age of Global Challenges: Alternative Perspectives of the Gülen Movement, Washington: Georgetown University, November 14-15, 2008. 350- 373.
Keles, Ibrahim. 2007. “The Contributions of the Sebat International Education Institutes to Kyrgyzstan”. Presented in the conference on Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement, edited by Dr. Ihsan Yilmaz &; Co., 362-376. Published in Great Britain: Leeds Metropolitan University Press, 2007.
Kılınç, Ramazan. 2007. "The Patterns of Interaction Between Islam and Liberalism: The Case of the Gülen Movement”. Presented in the conference on Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement. Edited by Ihsan Yilmaz. London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press.
Eldridge, Bruce. 2007. “The place of the Gülen movement in the intellectual history of Islam, particularly in relation to Islam’s confrontation with postmodernism”. Presented in the conference on Muslim world in transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement, edited by Ihsan Yılmaz. 526–38. London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press.
Kuru, Ahmet T. 2007. “Changing Perspectives on Islamism and Secularism in Turkey: The Gülen Movement and the AK Party”. Presented at Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement Conference, London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press.
Michel, Thomas. 2001. “Fethullah Gülen and the Gülen Schools”. Presents at the conference on Islamic Modernism: Fethullah Gülen and Contemporary Islam, at Georgetown University (26-27 April)
Park, Bill. 2007. “The Fetullah Gülen Movement a Transnational Phenomenon” Presented in the conference on Muslim World in Transition. (Pp. 46-59). London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press.
Ruth, Woodhall. 2005. “Organizing the Organization, Educating the Educators: An Examination of Fethullah Gülen’s Teaching and the Membership of the Movement”. Presented in the conference on Islam in the Contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice" Houston: Rice University, November, 12-13, 2005.
Sagbansua, L. &; Keles, I. 2006. “Turkish Higher Education Experience in Central Asia: Managerial and Educational Features of IAAU”, Presented in the International conference on Higher Education Management: International Trends &; Local Sustainability, Westminster: International University in Tashkent. May, 12, 2006,
Saritoprak, Zeki, 2007, “Fethullah Gülen and His Global Contribution to Peace Building”. Presented in the International conference on Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement. London: SOAS University of House of Lords and London School of Economics October, 25-27, 2007.
Schlubach, J. B. 2005. “Tolerance Is Love: Gülen, Ghazali, and Rūmī”, Presented in the International conference on Islam in the Contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice. Houston: Rice University, November, 12-13, 2005.
Tekalan, Serif Ali. 2005. “A Movement of Volunteers” Presented in the International conference on Islam in the Contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice, Houston: Rice University, November, 12-13, 2005.
Toguslu, Erkan. 2007. “Hizmet: From futuwwa tradition to the emergence of movement in public space”. Presented in the International conference on Islam in the age of global challenges: Alternative perspectives of the Gülen Movement. Georgetown University, November 14–15, 2008.
Uğur, Etga. 2004. “Political Culture, Civil Society, and Public Religion: Musings on the Gülen Movement” Presented in the International conference on Second Middle East and Central Asia Politics, Economy, and Society. Utah: University of Utah, September, 2004.
― ―, 2006. “Civic Islam in the Public Sphere: The Gülen Movement, Civil Society, and Social Capital in Turkey,” Paper Presented In Second International Conference on Islam, Madison: University of Wisconsin, March, 2006.
Turam, Berna. 2001. “National Loyalties and International Undertakings”. Presented at the conference on Islamic Modernism: Fethullah Gülen and Contemporary Islam, at Georgetown University, April, 26-27
Yilmaz, Ihsan. 2000. “Changing Turkish-Muslim Discourses on Modernity, West and Dialogue”. Paper presented at the Congress of the International Association of Middle East Studies, Berlin: October, 5-7. 2000.
― ―, 2001. “Renewing the religious thought and practice while transforming society: Fethullah Gülen and Tajdid”. Paper Presented in the Conference on the Islamic Modernities: Fethullah Gülen, the Man and His Movement, Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding. Washington DC: Georgetown University, April, 26-27. 2001.
Vicini, Fabio. 2007. “Gülen’s rethinking of Islamic pattern and its socio-political effects”. Paper Presented in the Conference on Muslim world in transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement, edited. Ihsan Yılmaz, 430–44. London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press.

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