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研究生:何華府
研究生(外文):He, Hua Fu
論文名稱:死亡突顯性對注意力的影響-以文化性線索為例
論文名稱(外文):The effect of Mortality Salience on Attention-An example of Cultural Cues
指導教授:顏乃欣顏乃欣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen, Nai Shing
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:恐懼管理理論遠端防衛文化世界觀視覺搜尋作業眼動追蹤儀器
外文關鍵詞:terror management theorydistal defenseculture-worldviewvisual search taskeye-tracker
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根據恐懼管理理論(Terror Management Theory, 1986)人們會適時地管理死亡想法的威脅,故Pyszczynski、Greenberg及Solomon(1999)依據此理論提出了一套雙元歷程模式來解釋人們的防衛方式:近端防衛與遠端防衛。在遠端防衛中文化世界觀尤為重要,在過去的西方研究之中,發現人們常以對自身文化世界觀持正向或偏好的態度,來防衛死亡想法的威脅;然而這樣的現象卻在亞洲研究中難以得到驗證,因此本研究的目的即在於重新檢驗文化世界觀的防衛方式。本研究操弄參與者的死亡想法,並藉由分心作業的方式,使其死亡想法掉入意識邊陲之中,以探究遠端防衛的本質。本研究除了以偏好的評估作為依變項外,且從認知的注意力面向出發,探討文化世界觀與防衛死亡想法之間的關係。本研究設計兩個實驗:實驗一以視覺搜尋作業的派典進行研究,以對自身文化的偏好、正確率與反應時間當作依變項。結果發現當參與者進行遠端防衛時,會對於與自身文化有關的線索,表現出較高的正確率,但在對自身文化的偏好,與反應時間的變項上,未能發現有顯著差異。實驗二以眼動追蹤儀器當作研究工具,並以眼動指標中首次凝視位置的數量,以及凝視時間作為依變項。結果發現當參與者進行遠端防衛時,會對於與自身文化有關的線索,表現出較長的凝視時間,但在首次凝視位置的數量上,亦未能發現有顯著差異。因此,綜合以上兩個實驗,本研究並未能完全支持文化世界觀的遠端防衛效果。
According to terror management theory (1986), people can manage the threat from death thought. Thus, Pyszczynski, Greenberg, &; Solomon (1999) proposed a dual-process model to explain how people defend the death. There are two defense routes: the proximal defense and the distal defense. The culture-worldview is an important function in the distal defense. In the western research, it was found that people were more positive or preferred to self-culture-worldview. However, there are mixed findings in the eastern research. In order to investigate the distal defense mechanism, this study manipulated participants’ death thought, and let the thought drop into the unconscious level via a distracting task. Furthermore, this study examined the relationship between the culture-worldview and the death defense from attentional paradigms. We conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, we adopted the visual search paradigm, and the dependent variables were self-cultural preference, reaction time and the rate of accuracy. We found it was more accurate when participants were asked to search the self-related cultural cue after reminding one’s death comparing to those are not reminding about death. But they were no significant difference in the self-cultural preference and reaction time. In the second experiment, we adopted the eye-tracker as the instrument, and the dependent variables were the index of number of first fixation and the duration of fixations. We found the fixation duration was longer for the self-related cultural cues than for the non-self-related cultural cues when participants being reminded about one’s death. But it was no significant difference in the number of first fixation. So, through these two experiments we found an inconsistent result in the distal defense.
致謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 V
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 引言 1
第二節 文獻探討 5
壹、恐懼管理理論 5
貳、注意力優先性 16
參、眼動追蹤儀 19
第三節 研究議題與假設 22
第二章 實驗材料的發展 26
第一節 施測方式 26
第二節 問卷內容 27
壹、故事性的短文與相關問題 27
貳、死亡焦慮修正量表 27
參、基本資料 28
第三節 施測結果 29
壹、評量者資料 29
貳、短文的效果 29
第三章 實驗一 31
第一節 參與者資料 31
第二節 實驗設計與流程 31
壹、實驗設計 31
貳、作業與實驗流程 32
第三節 實驗儀器 36
第四節 實驗一結果 37
壹、操弄檢核 37
貳、喜好臺灣文化的程度 38
參、正確率 39
肆、反應時間 40
第五節 實驗一討論 42
第四章 實驗二的材料發展 45
第一節 詞彙材料 45
第二節 施測方式 45
壹、評量者資料 46
貳、評量內容 46
第三節 詞彙篩選原則 47
第五章 實驗二方法 48
第一節 參與者資料 48
第二節 實驗設計與流程 48
壹、實驗設計 48
貳、作業與實驗流程 50
第三節 實驗儀器 50
壹、刺激呈現儀器與反應按鈕 50
貳、眼動追蹤儀器 51
第四節 實驗二結果 52
壹、操弄檢核 52
貳、眼動分析 53
第五節 實驗二討論 57
第六章 綜合討論 60
第一節 死亡想法的防衛 61
壹、實驗一 61
貳、實驗二 62
參、小結 63
第二節 死亡想法的喚醒與檢核 64
壹、死亡想法的喚醒 64
貳、死亡想法的檢核 65
第三節 研究的限制 66
壹、死亡想法喚醒的程度不同 66
貳、文化世界觀的表徵方式 66
參、實驗材料的呈現方式 66
肆、研究對象的類推 67
第四節 研究的貢獻 67
壹、注意力的研究取向 67
貳、新的實驗操弄方式 67
參、新的實驗檢核工具 68
參考文獻 69
附錄說明 75
附錄1 生活經驗體會 76
附錄2 死亡焦慮修正量表 84
附錄3 實驗一同意書 86
附錄4 分心作業 87
附錄5 方格詞彙圈選作業 88
附錄6 參與者的身心感受(實驗一) 90
附錄7 實驗二的刺激材料 91
附錄8 實驗二同意書 97
附錄9 參與者的身心感受(實驗二) 98

中文文獻
張振發(2010)。醫院志工死亡焦慮之研究-以臺中榮總志工為例。南華大學生死學系碩士學位論文。
張淑美、李昱平及黎筱圓(2007)。大專院校學生及成人生命態度之調查研究-以參與蓮花基金會2007年生命影展觀眾為例。財團法人佛教蓮花臨終關懷基金會。
鄧閔鴻、張素鳳(2006)。廣泛性焦慮疾患與憂鬱疾患共病現象的階層病理模式。中華心理學刊,48,203-218。
羅雯馨(2010)。大學生死亡態度與死亡教育需求之研究-以某私立大學為例。國立臺灣師範大學健康促進與衛生教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。
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