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研究生:馬小科
研究生(外文):Maia, Francisco
論文名稱:中華民國與撒哈拉以南非洲國家的關係探討:甚麼是可能促使撒哈拉以南非洲國家放棄或避諱承認中華民國的因素?
論文名稱(外文):The ROC and Its Relations with Sub-Saharan African Countries:What Are the Possible Factors Prompting Sub-Saharan African States to Withdraw or Refrain Recognition of the ROC?
指導教授:嚴震生嚴震生引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen, Chen Shen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:亞太研究英語碩士學位學程(IMAS)
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:中華民國-非洲中國-非洲國際承認外交競爭
外文關鍵詞:ROC-AfricaInternational RecognitionPRC-AfricaDiplomatic Competition
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本文主旨在分析構成撒哈拉以南的非洲國家決定中斷或抑制承認中華民國為主權國家原因。過去的幾十年來,中華民國的邦交國數目大幅下降,大部分位於撒哈拉沙漠以南的非洲國家都在其中。舉例來說,1964年是中華民國在非洲地區外交上的
峰期,台北獲得了22個國家的承認。然而,現今只剩下3個國家的承認。
這個研究計劃,企圖藉由關注研究撒哈拉沙漠以南的非洲國家不繼續承認台北的動機,使這種趨勢能更加被瞭解。這點是非常重要的,因為自1960年以來,中華民國已經將非洲視為在其謀求國際承認最有潛力的區域。而在這個層面,便不能輕忽中華人民共和國在其中所扮演的角色。驅使在“一個中國”的原則下,北京當局在推動提昇這些國家的整體國家利益上所擁有的能力,對中華民國在撒哈拉沙漠以南的非洲友邦國家而言,是推動他們轉向,開啟兩個中國外交競爭的一股重要力量。為了解釋這一種傾向,本文應用了新現實主義理論和其中的“bandwagon behaviour”模說明。
筆者預期本文能達到的目的包含了提供一個新的視角來看待中華民國與非洲的關係,用來評估非洲國家對於此問題所持有的立場。筆者希望能夠針對現今中華民國和非洲國家間脆弱的外交地位,帶來新的見解,並進一步提供關於非洲各國和中華民國之間關係的科學論證。

This thesis aims to analyze the possible reasons shaping the sub-Saharan African states’ decisions in withdrawing or refraining from recognizing the Republic of China (ROC). In the last decades the number of the ROC’s diplomatic allies has decreased drastically and the majority of states located south of the Sahara Desert have taken part in this process. For instance, at the peak of its success in Africa in 1964, Taipei was recognized by twenty two countries. Yet, today it is only recognized by three states.
The research conducted is an attempt to provide a better understanding of this trend by focusing on the sub-Saharan African states’ motivations in not extending recognition to Taipei. This is important because since the 1960s, Africa has become a potential area in the ROC’s quest for international recognition. In this regard, one should not disregard the role of the People’s Republic of China. Within the “one China” principle, Beijing’s capacity in advancing these states national interests has been an important driving force in diverting sub-Saharan countries’ allegiance from the ROC in the two China’s diplomatic competition. In order to explain this tendency, the Neo-realism theory and its “bandwagon” behavior will be applied.
The expected contributions from this work include a new perspective on the ROC-Africa relations in which an evaluation of the African stance regarding this issue is proposed. The author hopes to bring new insights on the current vulnerable diplomatic position of the ROC in Africa, thus further contributing to the scientific debate on the relationships between African countries and the ROC.





Table of Contents

Chapter I –Introduction…………………………………………………………………...1
1.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..…1
1.2 Research Questions……………………………………………………………………..3
1.3 Research Methodology………………………………………………………………….3
1.4. Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………………...4
1.5 Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………………….4

Chapter II - The ROC since 1971 and its Need for International Recognition………...7
2.1. The ROC’s Quest for International Recognition……………………………………….7
2.2 International Recognition and its Importance………………………………………….10
2.3 Withdrawal of recognition and Nonrecognition……………………………………….15
2.3.1 Withdrawal of Recognition…………………………………………………..15
2.3.2 The Act of Non-Recognition…………………………………………………16
2.4 The ROC and Sub-Saharan Africa: Withdrawal of Recognition, Non-Recognition and the Neorealist Theory………………………………………………………………………17
2.4.1 The Withdrawal of Recognition in the ROC-Africa Relations……………...17
2.4.2 The Act of Non-Recognition in the ROC-Africa Relations…………………18
2.4.3 The Neorealist Theory and its ‘Bandwagon Behavior’……………………...21

Chapter III - The Role of the PRC in the ROC-Africa Relations……………………..24
3.1 The ROC’s Main Obstacle in Africa: the PRC………………………………………...24
3.2 Sub-Saharan Africa: A Brief Introduction…………………………………………….25
3.2.1 The Sino-Africa Relations: an Overview……………………………………27

Chapter IV – The ROC and Africa……………………………………………………...35
4.1 The ROC after 1949: A Brief Contextualization ……………………………………...35
4.2 The Period 1949-1971: Africa as a new battlefield for Chinese competition……….. 36
4.3 The Period 1971-1989: The ROC’s International Decline…………………………….41
4.4 The Period 1989-2000: A new re-emergence of the ROC in Africa…………………..43
4.4.1 The ROC in Africa: the ‘Checkbook Diplomacy’ Issue……………………44
4.5 The Period 2000-2008: the ROC’s New Diplomatic Decline: The African Case…….46
4.6 The Period 2008-2014: the Diplomatic Truce………………………………………...48
4.7Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………...49

Chapter V - What Are the Possible Factors Prompting Sub-Saharan African States to Withdraw or Refrain from Recognizing the ROC?......................................................52

5.1 Ideology, Natural Resource Rics, Pariah States, Countries with International Ambitions, and Politically Unstable Countries………………………………………………………...52
5.1.1 Ideology……………………………………………………………………...54
5.1.2 The Case of Tanzania………………………………………………………..56
5.1.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………...60
5.2.1 Resource Rich Countries…………………………………………………….61
5.2.2 The Case of Angola………………………………………………………….65
5.2.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………...74
5.3.1 Pariah States………………………………………………………………….76
5.3.2 The Case of Zimbabwe……………………………………………………...77
5.3.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..83
5.4.1 Countries with International Ambitions…………………………………….85
5.4.2 The Case of South Africa…………………………………………………...86
5.4.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..93
5.5.1 Politically Unstable Countries………………………………………………94
5.5.2 The Case of Liberia………………………………………………………….96
5.5.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..99

Chapter VI – Conclusion………………………………………………………………..101

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………......106




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