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研究生:鍾錦樑
研究生(外文):Chung, Chin Liang
論文名稱:再見人類:蓋瑞 • 羅伯茲《人類唯一》中的人類流動性
論文名稱(外文):Re-visioning Human: Human Fluidity in Gareth Roberts’ Only Human
指導教授:羅狼仁
指導教授(外文):Brian David Phillips
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:《神秘博士》《人類唯一》超人類主義後人類主義人類流動性適應性基因工程人類演化
外文關鍵詞:Doctor WhoOnly Humantranshumanismposthumanismhuman fluidityadaptabilitygenetic engineeringhuman evolution
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本論文以超人類主義來檢視人類發展,並提出人類本性在與環境互動下呈現流動狀態。科幻小說經常在處理人、科技以及世界之間的關係,然而近年科幻小說在情節設計上有時會過度偏重科技層面,蓋瑞•羅伯茲的《人類唯一》將焦點轉回探索人類如何因應環境的改變。本論文也賦予超人類主義新的思考方向,讓理論不再只是強調人與機器的結合過程,而小說中所展現的流動人性將以「人類流動性」來指稱,這種流動性是肇因於人類彼此與這世界的互動結果。羅伯茲利用不時轉換敘事者的技巧,創造了一個多元且混雜的世界,人們看待世界的角度也互不相同。故事中的反派香朵為了超越人類極限,利用控制身體化學反應及基因工程來改良並創造出混雜的物種,而基因工程也因為欲望驅使干擾了天擇過程,可能阻礙物種面對環境不斷變化的適應性。然而,人類本身擁有一種求生機制可以因應環境改變而調整社會行為,透過「人類流動性」的檢視,超人類過程不再侷限於人與科技的結合,而是人與環境不斷互動的過程。
This thesis seeks to explore human development through transhumanism and examine human nature as a fluid idea which results from constant interactions with the environments. Science fiction is often about the relationship between humans, technology and the world; however, the stories sometimes over-emphasize the technological aspects. Gareth Roberts’ Only Human draws the attention back to the exploration on how humans respond to these environmental changes. This thesis provides a different perspective toward the idea of transhumanism which originally emphasizes the merging process between humans and machines. The flowing concept of human nature in the novel is described as “human fluidity” which results from the interactions and the relationships with the others and the world. Through the technique of shifting narrations, Roberts creates a diverse and hybrid world where everyone perceives the world differently. In order to surpass human limitations, the antagonist Chantal creates modified and hybrid beings by manipulating chemical reactions and genes. Genetic engineering disturbs the process of natural selection by purposely selecting desired traits which may impede the adaptability toward changing environments. Nevertheless, humans have a survival mechanism which can help them to adapt to changes by altering their social behaviors. Through the examination of human fluidity, transhuman process is more than the combination between humans and technology; it is a continuing interaction between humans and the environment.
Acknowledgements iii
Chinese Abstract vii
English Abstract ix
Chapter
1. Introduction 1
Only Human and Doctor Who 5
Previous Critical Reviews of Doctor Who 7
Chapter Organization 11
2. Infinity of Science Fiction: Limitation and Illumination of Possible Futures 15
Development of Science Fiction 15
Limitation of Science Fiction 21
3. Transhuman Dilemma: Metamorphosis of Humanity 25
Definition of Human 26
Transhumanism and its Dilemma 30
Fluidity of Transhumanism 35
4. Time and Space: Narrative Structure and the Fluidity of Human Nature 41
Narrative Structure 42
Diverse Tribes 49
Segregation and Cultural Blending 52
5. Evolution and Manipulation: Multi-directional Transformation and the Fluidity of Human Body 59
Genetic Engineering 61
Evolution and Survival Mechanism 71
6. Conclusion 81
Works Cited 87

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