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研究生:范安曼
研究生(外文):Faustina, Anselma
論文名稱:台灣與印尼雙邊跨境移工政策:以在台逃逸印尼勞工為例
論文名稱(外文):Coordinating Migrant Labor Policy between Taipei and Jakarta: The Case of Runaway Indonesian Workers
指導教授:陳至潔陳至潔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Titus
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國際研究英語碩士學位學程 (IMPIS)
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:外國勞工逃逸印尼勞工台灣移工政策
外文關鍵詞:Foreign WorkersRunaway Indonesian WorkersTaiwanese Guest Worker Policy
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由於印尼為世界上人口最多的國家之一,因此憑藉著此一優勢印尼成為了勞工輸出大國,但是非常多的印尼勞工在外國工作時面臨虐待,因而產生了不少問題,另一方面,台灣是印尼勞工們選擇工作的優先地,主要原因有三個,第一為較高的薪水,第二為較好的生活品質及良好的工作環境,第三不公平對待相較於他國較少發生,儘管如此台灣政府仍面臨著管理外籍勞工的問題,特別是逃逸的外籍勞工的問題,而在台灣的逃逸外勞比例中,印尼勞工占了最高比例。

先前的研究主要在於分析台灣的逃逸外勞現象,並且把此一現象歸因於台灣的移工政策所造成,但是現有的研究主要是針對菲律賓的勞工而不是印尼勞工,因此對於印尼逃逸勞工現象研究則相較較少。

考慮到外籍勞工議題涵蓋的層面多元,如多方的參與者,因此本篇論文將專注於闡述與探討負責輸出勞工及輸入勞工國家的角色及政策。本篇論文主要分為兩部份,第一部分,由於台灣的移工政策對於外國勞工非常嚴格,因此台灣的移工政策造成了印尼勞工過多的負擔,第二台灣和印尼政府無效率的配合,兩國政府只專注於表面並無徹底了解並從其根本解決勞工問題,這兩項因素造成了高比率的逃逸印尼勞工問題,除此之外,本篇論文亦將包含清楚的台灣政府和印尼政府的勞工政策發展,為了更清楚了解此一議題,本篇論文也向移民署收容所作問卷調查,訪問避難所的逃逸勞工,和研究台印勞工現象的專家學者們進行團體討論,本篇分析結果來自問卷調查及訪問,並將此一結果與現有的印尼及台灣政府的政策與合作進行分析。
As one of the most populous country in the world, Indonesia’s predominance is sending its human resources to work abroad. However, many Indonesian overseas workers encounter mistreatment during their work time which leads to several arising problems. On the other hand, Taiwan has become one of the preferred destination countries due to three reasons; higher salary, better living and working conditions, and low mistreatment cases compare to other destination countries. Despite that, Taiwan government still encounters issues in managing foreign workers. Runaway foreign worker is a major issue in Taiwan’s labor market and Indonesian workers are accounted as the highest runaway foreign workers in Taiwan.

Previous researches have been conducted to analyze the phenomenon of runaway foreign workers in Taiwan and most of them addressed Taiwanese guest worker policy as the major reason. Research on runaway Indonesian workers in particular is very limited as most of the existing researches focused on Filipinas workers.

Taking into account that foreign workers issue is a multi-faceted phenomenon which involves various actors, this thesis acknowledges the roles and policies from both sending and host states. Therefore this thesis delivers two arguments. First, Taiwan’s guest worker policy has put excessive burden on Indonesian workers as Taiwan employs highly restrictive policy towards foreign workers. Second, Indonesia and Taiwan’s ineffective cooperation is unable to address the existing runaway Indonesian workers issue as it emphasizes more on scratching the surface than dealing with the root causes. These two variables have inadvertently contributed to the high number of runaway Indonesian workers. In addition, this thesis also delivers a clear labor policy development in Indonesian and Taiwan government to understand each institution’s in-take related to labor issues. In order to provide comprehensive findings, this thesis conducts survey with the Indonesian runaway workers in Detention Center, interview with the runaway Indonesian workers in shelters, and focus group studies with Indonesian and Taiwanese experts who are dealing with such phenomenon. The analysis is drawn from the results of survey and interview, and then is connected to the current Indonesian and Taiwanese policies and cooperation in addressing particular issue.

ABSTRACT i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii
TABLE OF CONTENT iv
LIST OF FIGURES vi
LIST OF TABLES vii
ABBREVIATION viii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
BACKGROUND 1
REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE ON THE STUDIES OF GUEST-WORKER SYSTEM IN TAIWAN 5
State’s Role in Managing Foreign Workers and European Guest worker Policy 6
Lessons Learned from European Guest worker Policy 11
Previous Studies of Runaway Foreign Workers in Taiwan 18
RESEARCH DESIGN 22
Research Statement 22
Methodology 22
LIMITATIONS AND DEFINITIONS 24
OUTLINE 24
CHAPTER 2: THE STATE OF FOREIGN WORKERS 26
THE INDONESIAN PERSPECTIVE: TENAGA KERJA INDONESIA 26
The Era of Colonialism (1890-1945) 27
The Old Order Era (1945-1966) 28
The New Order Era (1966-1998) 29
The Reformation Era (1998-2004) 31
After the Reformation Era (2004-present) 34
THE TAIWANESE PERSPECTIVE: THE NEEDS OF GUEST WORKERS 39
Pre-Employment Service Act (1980s-1992) 39
Enactment of Employment Service Act (1992-1995) 41
Post-Employment of Service Act (1995-now) 44
CHAPTER’S CONCLUSION 49
CHAPTER 3: RUNAWAY INDONESIAN WORKERS 57
RESEARCH CATEGORIES 58
RUNAWAY INDONESIAN WORKERS: SURVEY RESULTS 64
The Story of Two Runaway Indonesian Workers 74
RUNAWAY INDONESIAN WORKERS: FOCUS GROUP STUDIES 77
ANALYSIS 81
CHAPTER 4: MIGRANT LABOR POLICY AND COOPERATION BETWEEN JAKARTA AND TAIPEI 87
INDONESIAN OVERSEAS WORKERS’ POLICIES 88
The Ministry of Manpower’s Ministerial Regulation No. 22/2014 88
Government Regulation No. 3/2013 90
Decision of the Director General of Employment Training Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration No. 152/2009 and No. 153/2009 91
TAIWANESE GUEST WORKER POLICIES 92
Employment Service Act 1992 (就業服務法) 92
Labor Standard Act 1984 (勞動基準法) 97
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS ON HUMAN RIGHTS 98
COOPERATION ON LABOR ISSUES: THE JOINT WORKING GROUP 101
ANALYSIS 108
CHAPTER 5 114
CONCLUSION 114
BIBLIOGRAPHY 118
APPENDIX I 124
APPENDIX II 133
APPENDIX III 156
APPENDIX IV 162


Book
Azmy, Ana Sabhana, Negara dan Buruh Migran Perempuan: Menelaah Kebijakan Perlindungan Masa Pemerintahan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 2004-2010, (Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2012).

Babbie, Earl, “Elementary Analysis”, The Practice of Social Research Eighth Edition, (Chapman University: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1998).

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Farbenlum, Bassina et.al, Migrant Workers’ Access to Justice at Home: Indonesia, (New York: Open Society Foundations, 2013).

Lan, Pei-chia, “Legal Servitude and Free Illegality: Migrant “Guest” Workers in Taiwan”, in Asian Diasporas: New Conceptions, New Frameworks, ed. by Rhacel Parrenas and Lok Siu, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007).

Lee, Joseph S., “The Role of Low-Skilled Foreign Workers in the Process of Taiwan’s Economic Development”, in Migrant Workers in Pacific Asia, ed. by Debrah A. Yaw, (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002).

Mittelman, James H., “Globalization and Migration,” in The Globalization Syndrome: Transformation and Resistance, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000).

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Yaw, Debrah A., Introduction to Migrant Workers in Pacific Asia, (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002).

Journal Articles
Bade, Klaus J., “Migration and Migration Policies in the Cold War,” in Migration in European History (2003).

Boeri, Tito and Herbert Brucker, “Why are Europeans so tough on migrants?”, in Economic Policy, October 2005, Great Britain.

Castles, Stephens, “Guest Worker in Europe: A Resurrection?”, in International Migration Review, Vol. 40 No. 4, 2006.

Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller, “Theories of Migration”, in Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, 4th ed, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

Fields, Gary S., “The Migration Transition in Asia”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal Vol. 3 (1), 1994.

Herzog-Punzenberger, Barbara, “Ethnic Segmentation in School and Labor Market – 40 Years of Legacy Austrian Guest worker Policy,” in International Migration Review, Vol. 37 No. 4, 2003.

Hui, Weng-Tat, “The Regional Economic Crisis and Singapore: Implications for Labor Migration”, in Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, Nos. 2-3, 1998.

Jones, Philip N., “Immigrants, Germans and National Identity in the New Germany: Some Policy Issues,” in International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, 1996.

Lan, Pei-Chia, “Political and Social Geography of Marginal Insiders: Migrant Domestic Workers in Taiwan,” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 12 (1-2), 2003.

Lee, Joseph S. and Su-Wan Wang, “Recruiting and Managing Foreign Workers in Taiwan”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5 (2-3), 1996.

Liu, Dorothy S., “The 1992 Employment Service Act and The Influx of Foreign Workers in Taiwan”, Pacific Rim Law &; Policy Journal, Vol. 5 No. 3, 1996.

Mori, Hiromasa, “Foreign Migrant Workers in Japan: Trends and Policies”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4 (2-3), 1995.

Moore, Jonathan, “Grist to the Mill: Taiwan Does Little to Stem Tide of Alien Workers”, Far Eastern Economic Review, April 5, 1990.

Nagayama, Toshikazu, “Foreign Workers Recruiting Policies in Japan”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5 (2-3), 1996.

Oishi, Nana, “Training or Employment? Japanese Immigration Policy in Dilemma”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4 (2-3), 1995.

Okunishi, Yoshio and Tetsu Sano, “Labor Markets of Japanese-Descended Workers and Foreign Trainees in Japan”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4 (2-3), 1995.

Ogawa, Naohiro, “Population Aging and Immigration in Japan,” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal Vol. 20 (2), 2011.

Pang, Eng Fong, “Abosrbing Temporary Foreign Workers: The Experience of Singapore”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal Vol. 1 (3-4), 1992.

Plewa, Piotr, “The Rise and Fall of Temporary Foreign Worker Policies: Lessons for Poland”, in International Migration, Vol. 45 (2), 2007.

Stahl, Charles, W. and Reginald T. Appleyard, “International Manpower Flows in Asia: An Overview”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 1 (3-4), 1992.

Taylor, J. Edward, “The New Economics of Labour Migration and the Role of Remittances in the Migration Process”, International Migration Vol. 37 (1), 1999.

Tsay, Ching-lung, “Labor Migration and Regional Changes in East Asia: Outflows of Thai Workers to Taiwan”, Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 40 No. 3, December 2002.

Tseng, Yen-fen and Hong-zen Wang, “Governing Migrants Workers at a Distance: Managing the Temporary Status of Guest workers in Taiwan”, International Migration, Vol. 52 (4), 2011.

Winn, Jane Kaufman, “There Are No Strikes in Taiwan: An Analysis of Labor Law in the Republic of China on Taiwan”, Maryland Journal of International Law, Vol. 12 (1), 1987.

Wong, Diana, “Transience and Settlement: Singapore’s Foreign Labor Policy”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6 (2), 1997.

Thesis
Kang, Charles Tze-li and Kuo Jen Su, “The Human Resource Development and Management of Foreign Laborers in Taiwan”, National Changhua University of Education, 1999.

Setyaningsih, Rita Pawestri, “Job Satisfaction of Indonesian Workers”, (Master thesis, National Chengchi University, 2011).

Sitorus, Utari Romauli, “Sejarah Tenaga Kerja Indonesia,” in Hubungan Bilateral Indonesia-Malaysia Studi Analisis: Dampak Ekonomi dan Politik dari Pengiriman Tenaga Kerja Indonesia ke Malaysia Periode 2004-2009, (Medan: University of North Sumatera, 2013).

Wolfgram, Alex, “I Have It Maid in Taiwan: Runaway Filipino Domestic Household Workers and Taiwan’s Foreign Labor Policy” (Master Thesis, National Chengchi University, 2012).

International Conventions
United Nations, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 18 December 1979.

United Nations, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966.

United Nations, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966.

United Nations, International Covenant on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 18 December 1990.

Government Reports and Documents
Bank Indonesia, “Laporan Survei Nasional Pola Remitansi TKI,” (Jakarta: Direktorat Statistik Ekonomi dan Moneter, 2009).

Bureau of Employment and Vocational Training, Council of Labor Affairs. Foreign Workers in Productive Industries and Social Welfare by Nationality. 2012.

IETO’s Chief Decree No. 07/KDEI/SK/IV/2014.

TETO-IETO, 7TH Joint Working Group Taiwan-Indonesia in Labor Issue, Taipei, November 29th, 2013.

Indonesian Government Regulation No. 3/2013.

Indonesian Ministry of Manpower, Ministerial Decree No. 22/2014.

Indonesian Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Decision of the Director General of Employment Training No. 152/2009 and No. 153/2009.

Taiwan Ministry of Labor, Labor Standard Act 1984 as amended in 2013.

Taiwan Ministry of Labor, Employment Service Act 1992 as amended in 2013.

Policy Paper
Aditya, Rangga et al, “Fenomena “TKI Kaburan” di Taiwan: Sebuah Studi Eksplorasi”, (Taipei: Indonesian Economic and Trade Office, 2014).

News Article
Frederic Laplanche, “Reflecting on Taiwan human rights progress”, Taipei Times, December 10th, 2014 (accessed from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2014/12/10/2003606373 on July 10, 2015 at 12:15).

Website
Azmy, Ana Sabhana, Gus Dur, Keadilan Gender dan Buruh Migran, (accessed from http://www.nu.or.id/a,public-m,dinamic-s,detail-ids,50-id,49211-lang,id-c,esai-t,Gus+Dur++Keadilan+Gender++dan+Buruh+Migran-.phpx on February 14, 2015 at 13:01).

BNP2TKI, “Sejarah Penempatan TKI Hingga BNP2TKI”, http://www.bnp2tki.go.id/frame/9003/Sejarah-Penempatan-TKI-Hingga-BNP2TKI, accessed on July 10, 2015 at 14:11.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, “Taiwan 2013 Human Rights Report”, United States Department of States, February 27, 2014, (accessed from http://www.ait.org.tw/en/2013-human-rights-report-taiwan-part.html on July 10, 2015 at 14:21).

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Duncan, Graham, “RI Workers in Taiwan Finds Solace on Aug 17”, 2007, accessed December 19, 2013 at 16.31, http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2007/08/19/ri-workers-taiwan-find-solace-aug17.html.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id .html accessed on November 6, 2014 at 22:19.

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Ministry of Labor Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, “Domestic Labor Obligations”, 2014, accessed October 6, 2014 at 18.23, http://www.musaned.gov.sa/en/DomesticWorkers/DomesticWorkerDuties

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