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研究生:畢依莎
研究生(外文):Bittaye, Isatou
論文名稱:非洲婦女政治參與及政治代表:盧安達與甘比亞的案例比較
論文名稱(外文):WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION IN AFRICA: WHY PROGRESS IN RWANDA AND UNDER-REPRESENTATION IN THE GAMBIA?
指導教授:陳至潔陳至潔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Titus C.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國際研究英語碩士學位學程 (IMPIS)
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:190
中文關鍵詞:女性政治參與政治代表盧安達甘比亞
外文關鍵詞:WomenPolitical ParticipationPolitical RepresentationRwandaThe Gambia
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女性的政治參與及政治代表的落實在性別平權上具有重要的意義。在歷史上,男性主宰政治已經好幾個世紀,然而近十年來,不管在西方或是非洲-女性政治參與比例最低的大陸,都能看到改變。目前,盧安達為最多女性參與議院會議的國家,參與眾議院的女性有63.8%,而參議院有38%為女性。另一方面,其他國家像是甘比亞,一直以來在女性政治參與處於落後的情形,國家的議會代表中,只有9.4%的女性參與者。本論文主要討論不同國家領導政策對於性別平權的態度,是影響女性政治參與的進展的主要原因。
Women’s political participation and representation is crucial for gender equality to be attained. Politics in the world has always been male dominated for centuries. However, recent decades have seen improvements not only in the Western world but Africa as well, a continent that had occupied the bottom rankings of women’s political representation for long. Currently, the leading country in female-dominated parliaments is Rwanda with 63.8% women in its Chamber of Deputies and 38% in the Senate. On the other hand, countries like The Gambia have been lagging behind in women’s political participation and representation for decades, and only 9.4% women are presently represented in the country’s parliament. This thesis argued that the different levels of national leadership’s political will to gender equality in each country is the key determinant of progress in women’s political participation and representation in decision-making bodies in both respective countries.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...........................................13
CHAPTER 1.................................................14
INTRODUCTION..............................................14
BACKGROUND................................................14
RESEARCH JUSTIFICATION AND CASE SELECTION.................17
Why Rwanda and The Gambia?................................18
RESEARCH DESIGN...........................................28
Research Question.........................................28
Research Statements.......................................29
Research Methodology......................................29
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS...................................31
Political Participation...................................31
Political Representation..................................32
Political Will............................................32
Temporary Special Measures................................33
STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH.....................................34
RESEARCH LIMITATIONS......................................35
CHAPTER 2.................................................37
REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION............................................37
INTRODUCTION..............................................37
STATE OF WOMEN’S POLITICAL STATUS.........................38
Modernization Theory......................................42
Political and Institutional Factors.......................46
Cultural Obstacles........................................55
Role of Women’s Movement..................................60
EXISTING LITERATURE ON WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION IN RWANDA AND THE GAMBIA...................62
Factors Influencing the Critical Mass in the Rwandan Parliament................................................62
Women’s Political Status in The Gambia: Factors Influencing Under-Representation......................................67
Critique of the Literature................................69
CHAPTER 3.................................................74
WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION IN RWANDA....................................................74
NATIONAL CONTEXT..........................................74
Political System..........................................76
STATUS OF WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION............................................78
Women in Parliament.......................................78
Women in Ministerial Positions............................81
Women in Local Governance.................................83
THE GENOCIDE AND CHANGING GENDER ROLES IN RWANDA..........88
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PROGRESS OF WOMEN’S POLITICAL REPRESENTATION............................................90
Normative Factors.........................................90
Institutional Factors....................................103
Organizational Factors...................................108
CONCLUSION...............................................115
CHAPTER 4................................................117
WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION IN THE GAMBIA...................................................117
NATIONAL CONTEXT.........................................117
Political System.........................................118
STATUS OF WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION...........................................120
Women in Parliament......................................121
Women in Ministerial Positions...........................122
Women in Local Governance................................124
FACTORS INFLUENCING WOMEN’S POLITICAL UNDER-REPRESENTATION...........................................129
Normative Factors........................................129
Institutional Factors....................................141
Organizational Factors...................................142
CONCLUSION...............................................147
CHAPTER 5................................................149
ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS.....................................149
COMPARISON OF POLITICAL WILL AS THE KEY DETERMINANT TO WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION.................149
ANALYSIS OF THEORIES EXPLAINING WOMEN’S UNDER-REPRESENTATION IN THE CASE STUDIES.......................155
PROPOSED MEAURES TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN DE JURE AND DE FACTO EQUALITY IN THE GAMBIA.............................156
Increase Leadership’s Political Will.....................157
i. Adequate Legal Framework.........................158
ii. Adoption of Quotas by Political Parties..........159
iii. Supporting Institutional Mechanisms..............159
Increase Civil Society Campaign and Advocacy.............160
Capacity Building for Women Politicians..................161
CHAPTER 6................................................162
CONCLUSION...............................................162
OVERALL CONCLUSION.......................................162
LESSONS LEARNT...........................................164
IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.........................166
BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................180


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