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研究生:莫以恩
研究生(外文):Martinez, Elaine
論文名稱:沒人陪伴的兒童移民:由貧窮與安全檢視尼加拉瓜及宏都拉斯之案例
論文名稱(外文):Unaccompanied Child Migration: An analysis of Poverty and Violence in Nicaragua and Honduras.
指導教授:盧業中盧業中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lu, Yeh Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國際研究英語碩士學位學程 (IMPIS)
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:移民孩童尼加拉瓜洪都拉斯移民貧困暴力美國
外文關鍵詞:child migrationpovertyviolenceNicaraguaHondurasUS.Migration
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本碩士論文是以來自尼加拉瓜和洪都拉斯移民至美國的兒童為研究案例,除了解釋現今主要移民的現象之外,本論文也從歷史和社會背景的角度去分析。本研究主要著重在於尼加拉瓜和洪都拉斯兩國的驅逐因素,並且同時也探究美國為何成為主要的移民目的地。國家這些年採取的政策會影響當地移民的情形,另外還有貧窮和暴力更是造成孩童移民的主因。本研究認為家族重聚是造成人口外移至美國的主因。此外,來自中美洲北部三角地帶的孩童移民發生頻率特別高,然而,這樣的狀態並不能當作是影響這三個國家單一的因素,相反的,這個問題應該被視為廣大社會變遷中,涉及並足以影響整體的一個部份。




Abstract

This Master thesis studies the case of Children from Nicaragua and Honduras migrating unaccompanied to the U.S. Rather than simply describing the primary characteristics of the current migration trends between these countries and the US, it also assesses the historical and social context within which they have been initiated. This implied the incorporation of a historicized and multi scaled analytical perspective that has been adopted throughout the research. The study therefore focuses more on the expelling factors in both Nicaragua and Honduras and somehow – but in a lesser extent- explores the attracting factors of the U.S. It has also been important to analyze in some detail the policies the countries have adopted throughout the years that may in fact have contributing to migration in the past and may be affecting the current child migration dynamics that has now erupted in the region. After pointing out how some major factors such as poverty and violence has somewhat contributed to the current child migration crisis, the research emphasizes that family reunification remains the major driving factor of out migration towards the U.S. that needs to be addressed. Additionally, the research stresses that child migration from the northern triangle of Central America to the U.S. is occurring in a high volume, nevertheless, this dynamic should not be considered as a single issue affecting these three countries. Instead, the issue should be seen as part of a wider process of social change that involves and affect the region as a whole.



Dedication i
Acknowledgments ii
Abstract iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
Acronyms viii
Chapter 1 – Introduction 1
1.1. Statement of the Problem 2
1.2. Research Questions and Objectives 5
1.3. Justification of the Study 6
1.4. Methodology 8
1.4.1. Research Design 9
1.4.2. Data Collection 10
1.5. Delimitation and Limitation 11
1.6. Organization of the Study 13
Chapter 2 – Child Migration, Poverty and Violence 15
2.1. Key Concepts 15
2.1.1. International Migration 15
2.1.2. Unaccompanied Migrant Child 16
2.1.3. Violence 16
2.1.4. Poverty 17
2.2. Theoretical Perspectives of Migration 19
2.3. Incorporating Children in Migration Studies 21
2.3.1. The Migrant Child as a Victim of Trafficking 22
2.3.2. The Migrant Child as a Social Actor 24
2.4. Poverty and Violence as Determinants of Child Migration 27
2.5. Violence and Poverty: The Undeniable Linkage 29
Chapter 3 – Case Study of Nicaragua 32
3.1. History of Nicaragua’s First Waves of Migration 32
3.2. Violence as a Contributing Factor to Migration 37
3.2.1. The Reduced Presence of Gangs in Nicaragua 39
3.2.2. Governmental Response to Gang-Related Violence 44
3.3. Assessment of Poverty and Migration 47
3.3.1. The Economic Dimensions of Poverty Affecting Nicaragua 48
3.3.2. Human and Social Dimensions of Poverty in Nicaragua 50
3.4. Child Migration In Nicaragua 53
3.4.1. Profile of Nicaragua Unaccompanied Minors 54
Chapter 4 – Case Study of Honduras 57
4.1. History of Hondura’s First Waves of Migration 61
4.2. Violence and Migration in Honduras 59
4.2.1. The Role of Children in Gang Related Violence 63
4.2.2. Governmental Response to Violence: Iron Fist 66
4.3. Analysis of Poverty in Honduras 67

4.3.1. Economic Dimensions of Poverty in Honduras 68
4.3.2. Human and Social Dimensions of Poverty in Honduras 70
4.4. Profile of Honduran Unaccompanied Minors 72
Chapter 5 – Summary and Discussion 76
5.1. Impact of Poverty and Violence on Child Migration 78
5.1.1. Impact of Poverty 79
5.1.2. Impact of Violence 81
5.2. Experiences of Honduras and Nicaragua 82
5.2.1. Family Reunification 83
5.2.2. Labor Migration 85
5.2.3. Violence: The Risks at Home Makes the Journey Worthwhile 87
Chapter 6 – Conclusion and Recommendations 90
6.1. Policy Recommendations 93
6.2. The 2014 US Immigration Reform and the Need for Further Research 96
Bibliography 98

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