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研究生(外文):Lee, Kuan Ting
論文名稱(外文):The status of aspirated and unaspirated consonants in Mandarin: Evidence from phonological experiments
指導教授(外文):Wan, I Ping
外文關鍵詞:Aspirated/ unaspirated consonantsvoice onset timespeech errorsdirectionalitymarkedness
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送氣與非送氣的對比是台灣華語塞音及塞擦音之特性。為討論送氣的議題,本篇論文透過語音實驗,從兩方面來探討:其一為嗓音起始時間(voice onset time),另一則為語誤的方向性(directionality)及標記 (markedness)。
嗓音起始時間實驗的結果顯示,使用四字非詞並結合回想作為實驗內容所測量出的數值與前人使用實詞所測量出的數值並無太大不同,並支持送氣子音的數值較非送氣子音的大。此外,塞音的研究結果支持Cho &; Ladefoged (1999)所提出的原則,也就是塞音除阻的位置若越後面,則其數值會越大;若將塞音的數值套用Cho &; Ladefoged (1999)的分類,則中文的非送氣塞音確為非送氣子音,而送氣塞音的數值則介於稍微送氣及送氣子音之間。塞擦音的研究結果若如Lai (2013)般套用Cho &; Ladefoged (1999)之原則,則會發現送氣塞擦音符合此原則,但非送氣塞擦音卻非如此。另外,子音後接的母音或韻母亦會影響子音之嗓音起始時間。研究結果顯示當大部份子音後接單母音時,子音之嗓音起始時間較長;研究結果亦指出當子音後接的為單母音[a]或以[a]開頭的韻母時,子音的嗓音起始時間會較接其他母音如[u], [i], [ow]時短。
語誤實驗的結果顯示,除了[k], [kh]有以有標送氣塞音取代無標非送氣塞音的情形外,其他組塞音及所有塞擦音皆無以有標送氣子音取代無標非送氣子音(反之亦然)的情形。就方向性而言,研究結果顯示語誤來源出現在語誤之前(perseveration)的方向性顯著最多。

The contrast of aspiration is one of the characteristics of stops and affricates in Taiwan Mandarin. Through the conduction of two phonological experiments, we discuss the issue of aspiration from two aspects: one is from voice onset time (VOT), and the other one from directionality and markedness of speech errors.
Non-word quadruple sets were used in both two experiments. The first experiment was speech errors, which combined tongue twister and immediate recall to induce speech errors; the second experiment was voice onset time, which only had the subjects to recall. Due to the limitation of phonological ill-form and lexical gaps, the rhymes of the two experiments had two forms, V and VG/GV; as a result, how vowels affected the VOT of stops and affricates were also discussed.
The findings of the second experiment (voice onset time) showed that the VOT measured by using non-word quadruple set was similar to the VOT measured by using real words as stimuli, and the findings also indicated that the VOT of the aspirated consonants was longer than that of the unaspirated ones. In terms of the results of the stops, they supported the principle proposed by Cho &; Ladefoged (1999) that the duration of VOT has a further back relationship with the closure; furthermore, the categories proposed by Cho &; Ladefoged (1999) were applied onto the results, it showed that Mandarin unaspirated stops were indeed unaspirated consonants, and the aspirated stops fell between slightly aspirated and aspirated consonants. The findings of the aspirated stops, if applied the principle proposed by Cho &; Ladefoged (1999) like Lai (2013), revealed that aspirated affricates supported the principle, yet the unaspirated ones did not. Regarding the influence of vowels on the VOT, it was found that when the succeeding vowel was a single vowel [a] or rhymes beginning with [a], the VOT of the stops and the affricates would be shorter.
The findings of the first experiment (speech errors) indicated that with regard to the stops, the aspirated velar stop tended to replace the unaspirated counterpart, while for the other stops, the probability for marked aspirated stops to replace unmarked unaspirated ones or vice versa was of the same. With regard to the directionality of speech errors, the findings showed that perseverations significantly outnumbered anticipations and exchange.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Voice onset time 1
1.2 Speech errors and markedness effect 2
1.3 The framework of the thesis 4
Chapter 2 Literature Review 6
2.1 Voice onset time 6
2.1.1 Definition of VOT 7
2.1.2 Stops 8
2.1.3 Affricates 15
2.1.4 The effect of other factors on VOT 18
2.1.5 Summary 19
2.2 Experimental speech errors 21
2.2.1 SLIP 21
2.2.2 Tongue twister paradigm and immediate serial recall 22
2.2.3 The directionality of speech errors 24
2.2.4 The markedness effect 25
2.2.5 Summary 28
2.3 Research questions 28
Chapter 3 Methodology 31
3.1 Subjects 31
3.2 Equipment 31
3.3 Materials 32
3.3.1 Experiment 1 (Speech errors) 32
3.3.2 Experiment 2 (Voice Onset Time) 34
3.4 Procedure 35
3.5 Data analysis 38
3.5.1 Experiment 1 (Speech Errors) 38
3.5.2 Experiment 2 (Voice Onset Time) 39
3.5.3 Statistical analysis 42
Chapter 4 Results and Analysis 43
4.1 The VOT of Mandarin oral stops and affricates 43
4.1.1 The VOT of Mandarin oral stops 44
4.1.2 VOT of stops under different vowel weights and vowel context 47
4.1.3 The VOT of Mandarin affricates 54
4.1.4 VOT of affricates under different vowel weights and vowel context 57
4.2 Speech errors 63
Chapter 5 Discussion 68
5.1 Voice onset time 68
5.2 Speech errors 73
5.3 Concluding remarks 75

Reference 78
Appendix A 82
Appendix B 84
Appendix C 86
Appendix D 87
Appendix E 88

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