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研究生:郭恩光
研究生(外文):Kuo, Silvia Luz
論文名稱:阿根廷華語文學習者的需求分析與教學建議
論文名稱(外文):Analysis and Suggestions for Chinese Teaching Materials in Argentina
指導教授:謝林德謝林德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Schilling, Dennis
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:華語文教學碩士學位學程
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:華語文教學教材設計阿根廷華語教學學習者之需求溝通教學法
外文關鍵詞:Teaching of Chinese as Foreign LanguageTeaching Material DesignChinese Language Teaching in ArgentinaLearner’s NeedsCommunicative Language Teaching
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在過去幾十年的時間,西方國家逐漸興起華文熱。拉丁美洲則到2000年代才漸漸開始看到越來越多的華語課程,因此如今華語教學在此地區仍處於一個不斷變化的階段。在阿根廷,由於華語教師以及華語教材的需求日益增長,當地的華語教師經常必須自備教材或是遷就於不適合的教材。筆者在阿根廷實際從事過華語職業教師數年,於此時期內發現當地使用的對外華語教學教材之理念與教學的實際做法之間存在明顯的差異性。筆者在教學中發現阿根廷學習者具有獨特的語言學習需求與習慣,因此教學法應該迎合學習者的特色與需求。如今阿根廷的華語教學界裡所面臨的問題涉及以下三方面:一是要如何滿足學員的需求、再者是要如何迎合當地學員的語言學習習慣與當地華語教師所使用的教學法、三是要如何突破教目前所使用的教材之無相關性和無效性。目前阿根廷的華語學習者所使用的教材中,有一半是以英語編寫,主要對象是以英語為母語者。另一半是來自中華人民共和國,並以西班牙文編寫的教材。在2009年間,當地的教師出版了一本號稱針對拉丁美洲華語學習者所寫得教材,但是本教材在教學品質及內容相關性皆有缺失。雖然這些教材在阿根廷被廣泛使用,然而對於當地學習者而言卻稱不上是最理想的教材。阿根廷目前所使用的教材主要的缺失,首先在於議題和語言內容與學習者的生活毫無相關。再者,此類教材的設計與教學法不符合當地學習者的需求。最後,教材所採用的練習題無法激勵學習者的思考和溝通能力。本研究的目的為初步分析阿根廷目前所使用的華語教材,並探討其實用性(或有效性)及相關性。藉由了解學習者的需求和當地教師們對於教材的意見,筆者將提出較有效的教學法和相稱的教材。本論文結合了筆者本人在阿根廷教學的實務經驗和當地學習者之意見。在經過教材分析後,筆者以最適合當地華語學習者的溝通教學法(特別採用溝通性教學法)設計出一個課程單元教案,希冀能提升往後西班牙語為母語者的華語學習效果,並對推動區域化華語文教材的編制能有些許貢獻。
In the past decade, most countries of the Western hemisphere witnessed the surge of the “Chinese Language Fever”. Such a wave arrived in Latin America in mid 2000, with the emergence of Chinese language courses. At present, the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language in this part of the world is still at an early stage of development. In Argentina, the need for qualified Chinese teachers as well as adequate teaching materials is nowadays most urgent, as local teachers find themselves having to adjust to available teaching materials, or in need of preparing additional teaching material to compensate for the shortcomings of currently used course books. During my years as a teacher of Chinese in Argentina, I realized that the underpinnings of the Chinese pedagogical materials are in stark contrast with the practices in the actual classroom. Through my teaching it became apparent that Argentine learners possess distinctive language learning habits and needs, which had to be catered for by means of a suitable teaching methodology. In order to improve the current situation, teachers of Chinese in Argentina must seriously address the following three questions: How should learners’ needs be addressed? How should we reconcile the discrepancy between teaching methodologies and students’ language learning habits? And lastly, how should we reconcile the lack of relevance and effectiveness of Chinese teaching materials? At the moment, half of the materials used by local learners are written in English, i.e. with an English speaking learner in mind. The other half is published in the People’s Republic of China with explanations and instructions written in Spanish. Although circa 2009 a book published by local teachers emerged claiming to be designed specifically for the Latin American learner, the pedagogical quality and relevance of the content are highly questionable. Although these materials are widely used in Argentina, they are far from being ideal for the local learner. The main flaws of Chinese teaching materials currently used in Argentina are namely, the lack of relevance of the themes and linguistic content with respect to the learner’s world experience, and last, but not least, the failure of the practice activities to encourage significant intellectual processes and the development of communicational skills. The aim of this research is, therefore, to analyze the pedagogical materials currently in use in Argentina, in order to evaluate their effectiveness and relevance. In view of the needs revealed by local learners and the opinions of Chinese teachers in said country, I intend to propose a more adequate methodology, as well as a set of sample materials. Thus the present paper is the result of my personal experience as a teacher of Chinese in Argentina and the integration of the opinions of local Chinese language learners. After having analyzed the materials currently available, I will present a set of sample materials, in the hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of the Chinese learning process for Spanish speakers, as well as to promote the future development of localized Chinese teaching materials.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iv
目次 vi
表次 viii
圖次 ix
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
一、阿根廷華人移民簡介 1
二、溝通教學法在當地華語教學中之發展 4
第二節 研究目的 10
第三節 研究方法 11
第四節 論文架構 14
第五節 名詞解釋 16
第二章 文獻探討: 溝通教學法與華語教材的製作關係 21
第一節 溝通教學法的基本原則與目標 21
第二節 溝通教學法中的能力與溝通概念 24
第三節 溝通教學法在華語教材設計中的地位 30
一、華語教材的趨勢 30
二、阿根廷學習者學習華語的困難點 44
第三章 阿根廷華語教學環境與現況 49
第一節 阿根廷華語教學現況概論 51
一、當地政治和國家整體環境 51
二、當地語言環境 53
三、華語在阿根廷社會中的使用 55
四、阿根廷華語教學機構介紹 57
五、小結: 華語在阿根廷的進化 --醜小鴨變天鵝 64
第二節 問卷調查結果: 阿根廷華語學習者之需求 65
一、華語學習者之身份 65
二、華語學習者的學習動機 68
三、華語教學的學習背景 70
四、華語教學中所使用的教材 77
五、華語教學中所使用的教學法 88
第四章 阿根廷華語學習者使用的華語教材分析 96
第一節 教材分析的層面 97
第二節 教材內容分析 99
一、教材中的主要成分 100
二、教材要求學習者完成的任務 101
第三節 教材分析結論 106
第五章 基於溝通教學法的課程單元教案 109
第一節 課文介紹 112
第二節 語言練習與運用 115
第三節 單元最終任務 116
第六章 研究結果與展望 119
參考書目 123
附錄 129

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