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研究生:周芳如
研究生(外文):Fang-JuChou
論文名稱:台灣兒童發展問題之影響因素
論文名稱(外文):Factors associated with developmental delay among children in Taiwan.
指導教授:王亮懿王亮懿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang-Yi Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:公共衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:兒童發展問題發展遲緩學習障礙過動症感覺統合失調危險因子
外文關鍵詞:child development problemsrisk factordevelopmental delaylearning disorderattention deficit hyperactivity disordersensory integration dysfunction
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背景與目的:根據聯合國世界衛生組織估計,全球發展遲緩兒童的盛行率約為 6~8%。當兒童出現發展遲緩或不預期之狀況時,會對其家庭產生一定的影響,包括家庭困境產生的經濟危機、照顧提供者是否有足夠的喘息空間或支持等。根據臨床與流行病學研究,一致發現造成孩童發展問題的因素錯綜複雜,無論是生物性或社會環境因素。國外已有許多文獻探討影響兒童發展的危險因子,回顧台灣的這方面的相關研究,發現尚未有學者針對兒童著重探討其可能造成發展問題的危險因子。因此本研究透過合併「2005 年」、「2009 年」國民健康訪問調查,探討影響台灣兒童發展問題的危險因子。

方法:研究對象為為 12 歲以下兒童,使用資料來源為具有全國代表性之 2005年與2009年國民健康訪問調查。統計方法利用邏輯斯迴歸,分析台灣兒童發展問題的危險因子,納入探討的控制與解釋變項為年齡、性別、早產或低出生體重、聽力異常、視力異常、父母親婚姻狀態、母親是否為外國籍、與父母親同住情況、父母親教育程度、加入健保情況、家戶所得;主要依變項為兒童發展問題,包括發展遲緩、學習障礙、過動症、感覺統合失調。

結果:根據兩次國民健康訪問調查 12 歲以下兒童的樣本總和為 7431
人,「2005年調查」為3900人及「2009年調查」為3531人。對發展遲緩有顯著影響的危險因素分別是「男性」、「是早產或低出生體重」、「聽力異常」、「視力異常」、「家戶收入低」;學習障礙的危險因素為「是早產或低出生體重」、「聽力異常」、「視力異常」、「家戶收入低」;過動症的危險因素分別是「男性」、「視力異常」、「母親為外國籍」、「母親教育程度低」、「父親教育程度低」;感覺統合失調的危險因素分別是「男性」、「是早產或低出生體重」、「聽力異常」、「視力異常」、「家戶收入低」。

結論:本研究利用 2005 年、2009 年國民健康訪問調查進行分析,發現影響台灣兒童發展問題(發展遲緩、學習障礙、過動症、感覺統合失調)主要分為,社會環境因素如,母親為外國籍、父親教育程度低、母親教育程度低、家戶收入低;生物性因素如,早產或低出生體重、聽力異常、視力異常為影響台灣兒童發展的危險因子。且發展遲緩、學習障礙、過動症、感覺統合失調各別隨著危險因子的累積,會產生更大的風險出現兒童發展問題,且趨勢效應檢定也皆呈現顯著。

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of developmental delay among the children is about 6-8%. Early recognition of developmental problems is important for timely intervention. Many studies have documented the negative effects of socioeconomic and biological risk factors on children. However, there are very few studies focus on the risk factors of children in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to find the risk factors for developmental problems to children in Taiwan. The study used the databases of 2005, 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to select children under 12 years of age whose nationality in Taiwan as the research population. Socioeconomic risk factors including immigrant mother, parental education, household income and biological risk factors including gestation and birthweight, hearing, vision were observed important in the development of children. And also have found a significant cumulative effect of risk on children’s development.
目錄
第一章 前言 1
第一節 背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究問題 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
第一節 兒童發展問題 3
第二節 國外兒童發展問題相關危險因子 8
第三節 台灣兒童發展問題相關危險因子 15
第三章 研究方法 17
第一節 資料來源與研究對象 17
第二節 變項定義 18
第三節 分析策略 21
第四章 研究結果 22
第一節 描述性統計 22
第二節 分析影響兒童發展問題的危險因子 27
第三節 分析危險因子的累積對發展問題之影響 31
第五章 討論 61
第一節 兒童發展問題之危險因子 61
第二節 兒童危險因子之累積與組合效應 65
第三節 研究限制 66
第四節 研究優勢 66
參考文獻 67

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