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研究生:李柏岳
研究生(外文):Po-YuehLee
論文名稱:應用於互動式動態雕塑之聯網型多馬達控制模組之設計與實作
論文名稱(外文):The Design and Implementation of Multiple Networked Motor Control Modules for Interactive Dynamic Sculpture
指導教授:楊中平楊中平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Ping Young
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:動態雕塑馬達控制互動人機介面CAN busKinect
外文關鍵詞:dynamic sculpturemotor controlinteractive man-machine interfaceCAN busKinect
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此研究主要目的為以馬達控制的球排出預定動態模板及與人互動。為達此目標,作者提出一些嘗試以建造此系統,包含增加互動性及增加馬達控制精準度。
多馬達互動系統可能遇到許多問題,包含馬達精度、匯流排傳輸的延遲、動態偵測的精度,甚至馬達反應時間等,這些問題最終都會導致使用者有較不理想的體驗或是一個不穩定的模板展示。本論文試圖提出一個多馬達互動系統模型,此一模型能夠在同樣架構下作為動態模板展示,或是與人互動並有良好的使用者體驗並具可拓展性。為達以上目標,本論文提出以下改善方式:
1. 可任意增加子板數量的初始化方式
2. 可預測使用者關節動態並即時反應之馬達演算法
此外,此一系統之程式碼以模組化為目標,期望在未來硬體變動後,將對程式改動的需求降至最低。
本系統使用32顆步進馬達、3塊Microchip® PIC18F4580開發板、8顆NXP Semiconductors® 74HC595位移暫存器、32顆Allegro MicroSystems® A4988微步進驅動器及一架Microsoft® Kinect攝影機。在互動模式下,Kinect擷取使用者關節資料,將此資料分析後得到每顆馬達的行為,接著傳回主板並分派至子板,開發板間皆以CAN bus連結,PIC18與74HC959間以SPI通訊;在模板模式下則將模板存於PC或主板,並定期讀取新數據,發送至各子板。
實驗結果為演算法評估。演算法評估以參與者雙盲測試後的評分計算。

The main purpose of the research is to allocate the balls controlled by motors into a pre-designed dynamic pattern and to interact with human. In order to reach this goal, several attempts were made to build the system, which includes an introduction of a man-machine interaction system and an improved motor control accuracy.
Typical problems with such interactive systems for multiple motors include inaccuracy of motors, delay in transmission, inaccuracy of motion detection and even a prolonged response time of motors. These problems may contribute to an unsatisfactory user experience or an unstable pattern demonstration. Therefore, a modified interactive system for multiple motors was proposed. The system was designed in a way that makes it able to demonstrate a dynamic pattern-running system and interact with human (satisfactory user experience expected) under same structure and the system must be capable of extending easily. To reach such goals, several improvements were made in the thesis:
1. Initialization design that enables operators to increase the number of slave boards easily
2. An algorithm to predict users’ joint movements, allowing the motor to adjust accordingly
Otherwise, the code of the system was written in a way that minimizes the future need for modification should a change to the hardware takes place.
The system adopts 32 stepper motors, 3 Microchip® PIC18F4580 demo boards, 8 NXP Semiconductors® 74HC595 shift registers, 32 Allegro MicroSystems® A4988 microstepping driver and a Microsoft® Kinect. In interaction mode, Kinect records users’ joint movements and send the results to the master board. These data will be analyzed and send to slave boards. Each board is connected by CAN bus. The communications between PIC18s and 74HC959s are through SPI. In pattern-running mode, the patterns are stored in the master board or PC and the periodically recorded data are dispatched to slave boards.
The experiment results are shown in algorithm evaluation, which is calculated based on the score given by participants after double-blind tests.

摘要 III
Abstract IV
Acknowledgement VI
List VII
List of Figures7 IX
Chapter. 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Introduction 4
1.3 Organization 5
Chapter. 2 Related Works 7
2.1 Related Researches 7
Chapter. 3 Background Knowledge 12
3.1 CAN (Controller Area Networks) 12
3.1.1 An Introduction to CAN Bus 12
3.1.2 Message Frame in Can Bus 13
3.1.3 Masks and Filters in CAN Bus 14
3.1.4 Message Frames 16
3.1.5 Data Frame 16
3.2 The Microsoft Kinect 17
3.2.1 Main Specifications of the Microsoft Kinect 18
3.2.2 Principles of Operation 18
3.2.3 Some Limits 22
Chapter. 4 Algorithms 23
4.1 The Interaction Algorithm 23
4.2 An Analysis to the Algorithm 24
4.3 Scale-Up Algorithm 26
Chapter. 5 Overview of the Target Platform 29
5.1 Overview of the platform 29
5.1.1 Microchip PIC18F5480 29
5.1.2 NXP 74HC595 30
5.1.3 Main Specifications of 74HC595 31
5.1.4 Pin Assignment 31
5.1.5 The Usage of 74HC595 32
5.1.6 Build and Execution 34
Chapter. 6 Software Organization 37
6.1 Overview of the software 37
6.2 Software in PIC18 37
6.2.1 Software Layers in PIC18 Master Board 37
6.2.2 Software Layers in PIC18 Slave Board 39
6.2.3 Special Functions in PIC18 41
6.3 Software in PC 42
6.3.1 Software Layers of Kinect 43
6.3.2 Software Details in PC 44
6.4 Software Flow 46
Chapter. 7 Experiment Results and Evaluation 48
7.1 Hardware Implementation 48
7.1.1 Ball-Position Initialization Mechanism 49
7.1.2 Implementation of Stepper Motors 52
7.1.3 Implementation of CAN bus and scaling 55
7.2 Accuracy of the Microsoft Kinect 55
7.3 Experiment Results with Motion Prediction 56
Chapter. 8 Conclusion and Future Works 60
8.1 Conclusion 60
8.2 Future Work 60
Reference 61
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https://www.pololu.com/file/download/a4988_DMOS_microstepping_driver_with_translator.pdf?file_id=0J450
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http://esd.cs.ucr.edu/webres/can20.pdf
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http://intlkineticartevent.org/
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[10]John MacCormick, “How does the Kinect work?,
http://users.dickinson.edu/~jmac/selected-talks/kinect.pdf
[11]Joachim Sauter, “Kinetic Sculpture BMW,
http://www.joachimsauter.com/en/work/bmwkinetic.html
[12]Kinetic Sculpture, Man creates kinetic sculpture that moves and lives on its own,
http://www.wimp.com/kineticsculpture/
[13]Lion Man - Der Löwenmensch,
http://www.loewenmensch.de/lion_man.html
[14]Microchip®, “PIC18F2480/2580/4480/4580 Data Sheet,
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/39637d.pdf
[15]Microsoft®, “Kinect for Windows Sensor Components and Specifications, http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj131033.aspx
[16]NXP Semiconductors® “74HC595 Shift Register Data Sheet,
http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/74HC_HCT595.pdf
[17]Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries,
http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com
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[19]Sean Follmer, Daniel Leithinger, Alex Olwal, Akimitsu Hogge, Hiroshi Ishii, “inFORM: Dynamic Physical Affordances and Constraints through Shape and Object Actuation, in Proceedings of the 26th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, pp. 417-426, 2013.
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[22]Tan Zhang, Kirk Backstrom, Richard E. Prince, Changli Liu, Zhiqin Qian, Dan Zhang, and Wenjun Zhang, “Robotic Dynamic Sculpture: Architecture, Modeling, and Implementation of Dynamic Sculpture, in Robotics & Automation Magazine, Vol. 21, pp. 96-104, 2014.
[23]The Art Story, “Calder Alexander,
http://www.theartstory.org/artist-calder-alexander.htm
[24]Theo Jansen, “The Strandbeest,
http://www.strandbeest.com/
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[27]YouTube, “Kinetic Sculpture @ BMW Museum, Munich,
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[28]YouTube, “Kinetic Lighting System ORBIS-FLY / Светодиодная кинетическая система ORBIS-FLY,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DZ18DNbjTQ
[29]YouTube, “Breaking Wave, kinetic sculpture located in the Biogen Idec lobby,
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[30]YouTube, “Kinetic Rain - World's largest kinetic art sculpture,
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[31]YouTube, “Kinetic Sculpture Demo Reel - Fisher Technical Services, Inc.,
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[32]YouTube, “Amazing Technology Invented By MIT - Tangible Media,
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[33]Yu-Pin Ma, “Aesthetics of Interaction Design for Environmental Awareness, doctoral dissertation, National Cheng-Kung University, R.O.C.

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